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Shirak Hotel
Shirak Hotel - dream vacation

Khorenatsi Street 13A, Yerevan

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City Hotel By Picnic - dream vacation

26 2 Martiros Saryan Street, Yerevan

Armenia (Armenian: ???????? Hayastan) is a landlocked country in the Caucasus that is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Iran to the south, Azerbaijan to the east, and Azerbaijan's Naxcivan exclave to the southwest. This former Soviet republic straddles Asia and Europe and boasts an ancient and rich culture.



  • Yerevan — the capital, and by far the largest city
  • Alaverdi — home of UNESCO World Heritage site Sanahin Monastery and nearby Haghpat Monastery
  • Dilijan — popular forest resort known as the "Little Switzerland" of Armenia.
  • Echmiadzin — the spiritual capital of Armenia, home to the Armenian Catholicos, is a UNESCO World Heritage site
  • Gyumri — Armenia's 2nd largest city which once dwarfed Yerevan. Small old town area still shows earthquake damage from 1988.
  • Jermuk — famous for its mineral waters, which come out at very high temperature and can be enjoyed at the spas. Ski lifts are under construction.
  • Tsaghkadzor — Armenia's ski destination.
  • Vanadzor — Armenia's 3rd largest city with a few nice churches



Armenia has been around for at least 3,000 years. Armenians have historically inhabited the "Armenian Highlands", a vast section of mountains and valleys across eastern Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus. It is here that the biblical mountains of Ararat (and today's eponymous cognac brand) can be found. Armenia became the world's first Christian country in 301 AD.

Various vassal states, principalities, kingdoms and empires rose and fell in different parts of this highland during history. They were unified once, just before the time of Christ, in the empire of Tigran the Great, which stretched from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Sea.

Much of the region's history has since been spent under the dominion of whichever great power was à la mode at the time: Romans, Byzantines, Ottomans, Persians, Russians and Soviets have all come and gone. These empires often fought their wars on Armenian territory, using Armenian soldiers. Despite rarely being politically independent, Armenians have consistently kept their language and their church. Its location on the silk road allowed Armenia to forge a link in the great network of merchant communities that extended from eastern Asia to Venice.

Modern history

Russians and Ottomans dominated Armenia's modern history. Ottoman control was established early, upon the fall of the Byzantine empire in the fifteenth century. Russia's presence was established later, in the 1820s, after a series of wars with the Persians.

Islamic Ottoman rule was, for much of the time, largely benign. The Armenians' religious autonomy was bought through their higher taxation. However, relations soured in the late nineteenth century which saw various massacres of Armenians. This culminated in the Ottomans' reputation being thoroughly ruined during the Armenian Genocide of 1915-1923.

Armenian Genocide

During the First World War, the Ottomans fought the Russians. The Christian Armenians on the Ottomans' Russian border were considered liable to side with Russia and so they were treated as an enemy. The Ottomans attempted to kill or deport the entire Armenian population. Even the Ottomans' defeat in 1918 did not prevent the continuation of the persecution which continued until 1923 and saw approximately 600,000 - 1.5 million people perish.

The genocide led to the huge Armenian diaspora community that exists all over the world today and the ongoing diplomatic hostility between Turkey and Armenia, since Turkey continues to deny it was a genocide, and resents Armenia for bringing up the topic internationally.

Soviet Armenia

As was the case in other Soviet republics, Armenia saw great industrial growth and widespread increases in education. Yerevan mushroomed from a dusty garrison town of 20,000 to a metropolis of 1 million and the Soviet culture machine, within strict limits, churned out heavily subsidized cultural education and activities.

Karabakh Conflict

As the Soviet Union fell apart in the early 1990s, the Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh, a culturally Armenian region in Azerbaijan, fought for independence from Azerbaijan with support from Armenia, and the Armenian Diaspora. The war was won militarily, but no diplomatic solution was reached. The ceasefire line of 1994 now represents a de facto national boundary and Nagorno-Karabakh is in an odd state of unrecognized statehood. While the fighting on the ground stopped, with only minor exceptions, diplomatic tensions still run high. The Armenian/Karabakh borders with Azerbaijan are closed. Turkey has also closed its land border with Armenia in support of its Azeri-Turk kinsmen.


A small and mountainous, landlocked country, Armenia almost never fails to surprise visitors. The mountain passes, valleys and canyons make it feel much larger, and Lake Sevan provides a welcome sight, with endless water visible from its southern shores. Given the geographic variation, there is also much variety of climate — there are barren lunar landscapes, forests, snow-capped peaks and alpine lakes.

Five percent of the country's surface area consists of Lake Sevan (Sevana Lich), the largest lake in the Lesser Caucasus mountain range.


Given its proud claim to being the world's first officially Christian country, there are countless monasteries and churches, which are set in some places of incredible natural beauty. The monasteries at Tatev, Noravank, Haghartsin, Haghpat and Geghard are well worth a visit just for the landscape even without the impressive, millennium-old monasteries found there.

Armenia is at the fascinating crossroads of Europe and Asia and its culture draws from both. While many Armenians consider themselves European, their social conservatism in some realms is not consistent with Europe proper. The new world faced by Armenians after the fall of the Soviet Union has seen great social changes especially in the capital, Yerevan. The small and very homogeneous (about 99% Armenian) population is strongly family oriented. The people across the land are very hospitable, and place a lot of pride in their hospitality. Show up in a village without a penny, and food and a place to stay will flow - along with drinks and endless toasts.

Politically, Armenia has aligned itself with Russia and against its Turkish and Azeri neighbours.

Armenia also has lots of road signs in English, and there are a fair amount of English-speaking Armenians in general, and you get the distinct feeling that tourists are welcome. Police don't appear to be too crooked, at least not in Yerevan, and in general the country appears to be both reasonably safe and well-organised.


The predominant religion in the world's first Christian nation is not hard to guess: 97% of Armenia's population belongs to the Armenian Apostolic Church, an Oriental Orthodox Church.

Get in

Entry by plane, though Georgia or Iran is possible and unproblematic. The borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey are closed.



From 1 January 2013, EU, and also Schengen area, passport holders join the lucky few (CIS, Georgia and Argentina [1]) that do not need a visa for tourist visits of up to 90 days.

Visa on arrival

For all others (except a handful of mainly African non-Westerners – see below), 21 day tourist visas are available upon arrival at Yerevan airport and at the land crossings at the price of 3,000 dram for 21 days and 15,000 dram for 120 days.

At Yerevan airport, there is currency exchange and an ATM located before customs and immigration. There is a hefty surcharge of approximately US$10 for changing traveler's checks, which in general are not widely used in Armenia.

At the land crossings, border guards will happily take other currencies but only at lousy rates. Try to have Armenian dram before arriving at the border. Some travellers have been charged as much as US$20 (the approximate equivalent of three times the official price), but as of August 2015 you'll be charged US$10 for a 21-day visa at the Bagratashen-Sadakhlo border crossing. Border guards and customs officers will not be able to change a US$100 note (which is about the average Armenian's monthly salary) so don't even try.

Visa in advance

A slightly more expensive option (officially at least) is the e-Visa (US$10 for 21 days; US$40 for 120 days). These e-Visas are processed completely online and take up to two business days to be issued. They allow entry into Armenia through Yerevan Airport and the following land border crossings: from Georgia, Ayrum railway station, Bavra, Bagratashen & Gogavan; and from Iran at Meghri.

A 21 day visa obtained in advance from an embassy (not online) costs US$8.

An Armenian visa also gives you the right to stay in Russia for up to 5 days: There is an agreement between these countries to facilitate land transit to visitors. To be on the safe side, check at a Russian Embassy before booking a ticket.

The unlucky few that cannot obtain a visa on arrival must apply for a visa at an embassy or consulate before arriving and need an invitation.

By plane

Zvartnots International Airport (IATA: EVN) [2], 10 km west of Yerevan is the main airport in the country.

Some West Asian airlines (Syrian, Iranian, etc.) serve the airport.

There are very frequent flights from across the CIS. Russian airlines include: Aeroflot, S7, Ural, Polet, Kuban Airlines, Saravia, Tatarstan, UTAir and Yamal. Others include Belevia (Belarus), Dniproavia (Dnipro, Ukraine) and SCAT (Kazakhstan).

Several European airlines also serve Yerevan: Czech Airlines, Air France, Austrian, LOT.

Shirak Airport (IATA: LWN) in Gyumri has a few flights from Russia.

By train

In fall, winter and spring the overnight train #371 runs every second day from Tbilisi, Georgia to Yerevan, leaving at 20:20 and arriving at 6:55 the next morning.

In summer the overnight train #202 runs daily from Batumi (Makhindjauri station), Georgia via Tbilisi to Yerevan, leaving at 15:35 and arriving at 7:25 the next morning.

The train links with Turkey and Azerbaijan are severed.

By car

It is possible to drive to Armenia via Iran or Georgia. The borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan are closed. Local travel agents can arrange transport to the border; some Georgian agents can arrange transport all the way through to Tbilisi. Although more expensive than a train or a bus, a private car may be more comfortable and combined with sightseeing along the way.

Coming from Georgia, there are warnings, e.g. from the German Federal Foreign Office, not to use the eastern route (via Noyemberyan) that passes by the Armenia-Azerbaijan border only a few dozen metres, due to the ongoing conflict and the minor clashes between Armenia and Azerbaijan army that happen from time to time in this region. However, the route via Alaverdi is said to be maintained badly. An option might be via Tashir. More convenient, if you travel Georgia before, can be to continue into Armenia after visiting the supposedly dead end region of Samtskhe-Javakheti including Borjomi, Bakuriani and Vardzia.

By bus


There is minibus (marshrutka) service from Tbilisi for about 17 lari. Minibus services from Tbilisi to Yerevan take this same route and cost about 35 lari. From this service, it is also possible to get out at Alaverdi (closest major town to Haghpat and Sanahin monasteries).

Also, several marshrutkas leave daily from Akhalkalaki into Armenia. Akhalkalaki is conveniently located when visiting Samtskhe-Javakheti including Borjomi, Bakuriani and Vardzia.


There is daily modern bus service to Yerevan available from Tehran or Tabriz for about $60/$50; check travel agencies for that. Otherwise, the only Iran/Armenia land border at Nuduz/Agarak is very badly served by public transport. On the Armenian side, you can get as far as Meghri by one Marschrutka a day from Yerevan. In both directions, marshrutka leaves quite early in the morning. Kapan and Kajaran are more frequently served by marschrutkas, but it is a long and mountainous (and therefore expensive) stretch to the border from there. From Meghri, it is around 8 km to the border and hitching or taking a taxi is the only option. On the Iranian side, the closest public transport can be found around 50 km to the west in Jolfa, so a taxi (around 10-$15) again is the only (commercial) choice. The border is not busy at all, so when hitching, you have to mainly stick with the truck drivers and Russian or Farsi helps a lot here. Consider for yourself whether this is a safe option.

From Nagorno-Karabakh

If you are coming from Nagorno-Karabakh, you will have been in Armenia before, since this is how you entered this region in the first place, via road. Note, any other entrance into Nagorno-Karabakh, e.g. via Azerbaijan, is highly dangerous and can be life threatening.

There are no checkpoints administrated by Armenia when re-entering (or leaving) Armenia neither via the northern nor via the southern route. There are only checkpoints administrated by Nagorno-Karabakh police. Everything you require to be allowed back into Armenia is your still and sufficiently long valid Armenian visa you received in the first place. The Armenian visa does not expire nor prolong when entering Nagorno-Karabakh, and you cannot obtain a new one when entering Armenia from Nagorno-Karabakh.

Get around

By day tour

One of the best options for getting to the major tourist sites - some of which have infrequent public transport - are the many day tours advertised throughout Yerevan. Starting at $6, you can choose from a variety of half to full day trips which include a good number of the country’s major attractions. Some of the more remote and exotic destinations, such as the Petroglyphs of Ughtasar and many of the caves, for example, require special planning.

By mini-bus or bus

Public transportation is very good and inexpensive in Armenia. It can also be tough to get to more remote sites outside of populated areas. The system could be described as a hub and spoke system, with each city offering local transportation to its surrounding villages and each city offering connections to Yerevan. Most inter-city travel is by 14-seat minibuses or buses. Yerevan has several bus interchange stations that serve the whole country, so depending on where you want to go, you should find out which bus interchange station services the area of your destination. Unlike many countries in Eastern Europe, Armenian mini-buses do not sell tickets beforehand, and do not issue tickets at all. You simply pay the driver, at any point in the trip (though some will collect at the beginning). Exact change is never required, but a 20,000 dram note a 1,000 dram ride might present a problem. Tips are unheard of on public transportation.

By taxi or car

For the average western tourist, you can hire a taxi to go most anywhere in the country on very short notice. If you have decided to travel heavy by bringing big bags, then going by taxi will be the best option. Prices are about 100 drams (33 cents) a kilometer. Most taxis do not have meters though, so you should negotiate a price before you leave. Anyway, taxi is a good option in longer trips, especially if you don't like waiting a minibus for hours.

You can rent cars, but if you are used to driving in the West and have not driven outside of America, Western or Central Europe, you should hire a driver when you rent your car. Driving in Armenia for the average tourist can be a different undertaking. But if you decide to rent a car, there are a growing number of car rental companies, including SIXT (office at Zvartnots airport), Europacar, Hertz and others throughout the central Yerevan.

Most main roads around Yerevan are in decent to fair shape with some being in unusually good condition. When you travel north (Dilidjan) or south (Jermuk), roads are less maintained and rather bumpy and you can feel it especially when using public transport! (Minibuses are often in bad condition too) Pot holes are very much a part of the experience and can test your driving skills. Be careful and when renting an automobile, consider an all wheeled vehicle or sport utility if available.

By thumb

Not as common as in the days of the post-Soviet collapse, hitching is still perfectly safe and acceptable. Drivers often don't expect anything, but offer anyway, and sometimes they'll take the marshutni fare. Flag cars down by holding your arm in front of you and patting the air. This is how taxis are flagged and buses and marshutnis as well. During your ride, don't be surprised if you befriend a driver and eventually end up staying a few days in the driver's house with his family.

By bicycle

Due to mountainous location and hills, bicycling is not such a common mode of transport in Armenia, as it is in the rest of Europe. Otherwise, it's a great way to see and experience much of the countryside if you can handle the inclines.

By train

There are trains that move around Armenia, although they are Soviet-style trains and a somewhat slow means of transport for moving around the country. Trains can be taken up to Gyumri and from there on to Alaverdi and Georgia, or they can be taken up to Lake Sevan, all the way to the far side.

By plane

Armenia has only two working airports (Yeveran and Shirak) but there are no internal flights between them. Flights to Stepanakert in Nagorno-Karabakh are planned but the region's uneasy diplomacy is stalling progress.

By tour operator

Aside from the plentiful day tours, you can take a package tour of Armenia.


See also: Armenian phrasebook

Armenian is the only official language in Armenia, which forms its own language group in the Indo-European language family. However, almost all Armenians can speak some Russian because Armenia was part of the Soviet Union, and Russian continues to be a compulsory second language in schools. English is becoming more widely spoken, particularly in Yerevan; however, outside the capital, very few people speak any English.


Armenia lies at the root of the Christian faith, as it is known as the first country that was Evangelized, by two of Jesus' own disciples. Today, there's still a wealth of religious heritage to see. Beautiful churches and monasteries are omnipresent, and some are up to 1700 years old. A few of the most important ones are listed on Unesco's World Heritage list. To start, there's the monastery of Geghard, carved out of a mountain slope and dramatically situated between the stunning cliffs of the Azat river gorge. Once you're there, the Garni Temple with its Greek temple style buildings is just a quick stop downriver. The Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Vagharshapat has parts dating back to the 5th century and is considered the oldest cathedral in the world. The Monastry of Sanahin, which means as much as "this one is older than that one" is just a stone's throw from the Haghpat Monastery. Both date back to the 10th century. The 7th century Zvartnots Cathedral is now in ruins, but considered of great archeological value.

If you're up for more, consider the basilica and archaeological site of Yererouk or the ruins of the historic city of Dvin. Some heritage sights sit in beautiful valleys. The monastery of Noravank is a good sight in the lovely Amaghou Valley, while the monasteries of Tatev and Tatevi Anapat sit in the Vorotan Valley - a gorgeous area with great landscapes and dotted with churches.

Unlisted but surely beautiful is the monastery of Khor Virap. It offers great views of the biblical Mount Ararat which is now technically part of Turkey, but is seen on the Armenian national flag. According to the Book of Genesis, this where Noah landed his arc.

This famous mountain can be seen from the nation's capital, Yerevan. is the Armenian cultural centre, with plenty of opera and theatre to go around. The State Museum of Armenian History has an excellent collection and the Armenian Genocide Memorial & Museum has a sad but worthwhile story to tell. For a more casual side, visit the lively Vernisaj Market or climb the stairs of the Yerevan Cascade. Another hotspot for domestic and international travellers alike is Lake Sevan. In summer, the beaches of this massive high-altitude fresh water lake (one of the largest in the world), are a popular destination for anything from daytrips to camp site vacations and resort holidays.


  • Hiking
  • Rock Climbing
  • Wind Surfing
  • Sun Baking
  • Camping
  • Skiing
  • Monastery hopping
  • Biking. Bike Armenia Tour Route has a great route mapped out to see Armenia (and optionally Karabakh) by bike.



The Armenian currency is known as the dram, denoted by the symbol "?" (ISO currency code: AMD). The dram is accepted everywhere, and in some rare cases US dollars will be accepted for larger purchases - though the dram is the only legal currency for commerce. US dollars, Euros and Rubles can be exchanged almost anywhere in the country, with other major currencies also easy to exchange. Exchange booths and commercial banks do not charge a commission and rates are almost always quite competitive.

ATMs (Bankomats) are widely available in larger towns; though outside of Yerevan, you should have a major system such as Visa or MasterCard on your card for it to work.

Credit cards are not widely accepted outside Yerevan.


Armenian carpets, cognac, fruits, handicrafts and Soviet memorabilia are some of the most popular things people take home from Armenia. Most of these are plentiful at Vernissage, a seemingly never-ending weekend flea market next to Republic Square with the more touristy stuff in the back half, further from Republic Square.

Most shops and restaurants are open every day and offices and schools are open Monday to Saturday. Mornings are usually slow, and places don't tend to open early, or even on time.

Included in prices (except sometimes hotels).

Bargaining and tipping

Bargaining is uncommon in Armenian stores, though when purchasing expensive items or bulk, they may be amenable to it. In markets, however, bargaining is a must!

Tipping is increasingly common in Armenia, especially at cafes and restaurants. Many Armenians will simply round up their checks, or leave ten percent. Some café staff are only compensated in the tips they earn, though you cannot always tell by the service they provide. Many restaurants have begun to charge a 10 % “service fee” which they usually do not share with the waiters, and it is not clear for what it is used. This fee is often not clearly stated on the menu, so you should ask if you want to know. Tipping is usually not expected in taxis, but again, rounding up is not uncommon.


Vernisage Crafts and Flea Market - every Saturday and Sunday near Republic Square, there is a huge open market with great shopping for tourists and locals alike. There are large sections for old carpets, intricate wood carvings and backgammon boards, paintings, souvenirs, old porcelain and old housewares, with smaller sections for needlework and embroidery, stone work, books, military surplus and countless other random things.

The GUM Shuka farmers market is a large covered market near the Tashir Mall near the intersection of Tigran Mets Ave and Movses Khorenatsi Street. Inside are fresh fruits and vegetables along with great dried fruits, as well as a butcher section and dried herb section. Outside on one side are more butchers and on the other more fresh fruit and vegetable vendors, next to a row of hand made metal wood-burning stove stalls.

For Armenian- and Russian-speaking visitors, a visit to the used book market can be quite interesting. Located in a park near the corner of Abovyan and Moskovyan Streets, close to the Yeritasardakan Metro Station, vendors sell thousands of books. You may try to bargain.


  • Khorovats is a barbecue which can be chunks of pork, lamb, chicken or beef (called Shashlik in other post-Soviet countries). Usually, it is flavored with onions and other Armenian spices. Tomatoes, eggplant and bell peppers are also part of the khorovats meal. Kebab is the ground-meat version of khorovats, and is cheaper.
  • Harissa - A kind of homogeneous porridge made of previously stewed and boned chicken or lamb and coarsely ground soaked shelled wheat. The dish dates back many centuries, and is traditionally served on Easter day. It is considered a national dish of Armenia, and is widely prepared by Armenians around the world.
  • Borscht is a commonly served Ukrainian vegetable soup. It is traditionally made with beetroot as a main ingredient, which gives it a strong red color. It is usually served warm with fresh sour cream.
  • Khash is a traditional dish, originating in the Shirak region. Formerly a nutritious winter food for the rural poor, it is now considered a delicacy, and is enjoyed as a festive winter meal. Made from less commonly used parts of animals, most visitors consider it an acquired taste.
  • Tolma (stuffed grape leaves; a variety with stuffed cabbage leaves, bell peppers and aubergines) also exists.
  • Byorek - consists of phyllo dough folded into triangles and stuffed with cheese, spinach or minced beef, and the filling is typically spiced. A popular combination is spinach, feta, cottage cheese (or pot cheese) and a splash of anise-flavored liquor (such as raki).

Desserts and snacks:

  • Gata or Nazook - A flaky pastry with a sweet filling.
  • Alani – pitted dried peaches stuffed with ground walnuts and sugar.
  • Kadaif (ghataif) – shredded dough with cream, cheese, or chopped walnut filling, soaked with sugar syrup.
  • Anoushabour – dried fruits stewed with barley, garnished with chopped almonds or walnuts (a traditional Christmas pudding).

Armenian fruits and vegetables are special. One should definitely try them and will never forget the taste of Armenian apricot, peach, grapes, pomegranate, etc. Especially the watermelons in Armenia and neighboring countries with similar altitude and climate are of superior taste.

Armenian bread is very tasty. There is a wide range of different types of bread, including black, white lavash (a soft, thin flatbread), and matnaqash.

Don’t miss trying milk products. Along with ordinary milk products, there are some traditional and really tasty and refreshing ones. Matsun (yogurt) is a traditional Armenian dairy product that has centuries of history. It contains a number of natural microelements, which have high biochemical activity. It’s really refreshing, especially when you try it cold during hot summers. Okroshka - cold soup with kefir and cucumber and dill; it is a healthy and refreshing dairy product. Spas is really tasty hot yogurt soup with grains in it.

Café culture rules in Armenia, and the best places to have a cup of coffee and people-watch are sidewalk cafés. Any place near the Opera is certain to be jumping late into the summer nights. A popular chain is "Jazzve" (several locations throughout the city, including near the Opera and off Mesrop Mashtots Avenue), which offers many varieties of tea and coffee as well as great desserts.


Alcoholic: Vodka, tutti oghi (mulberry vodka), honi oghi (cornelian cherry vodka), Tsirani oghi (apricot vodka), local beer (Kilikia, Kotayk, Gyumri), wine (can also be made of pomegranate), and brandy. Respected wines include Karas, Karasi, Kataro, Armenia and some new wines hitting the market. Many are made with Armenian grape varietals not being grown anywhere else in the world. Areni is one of the most popular grape sorts which the largest number of red wines are made from, and the name of Armenia's wine country, while khndoghni is a variety grown in southern Karabakh that the Kataro wine is made from.

Other: Tan (yogurt combined with water and salt), Jermuk (mineral water), masuri hyut (rose hip juice), chichkhani hyut (sea buckthorne juice), bali hyut (sour cherry juice), Armenian coffee, and herbal teas.


Across Armenia, you can find bed and breakfasts that are pleasant and will give you a true taste of Armenian culture. The language barrier will be significant in the rural areas of Armenia if you do not speak Armenian or Russian, but if you take a phrase dictionary with you, you should have no trouble, as people are patient. If you don't personally know any Armenians, one way to access the true Armenia, away from the Westernized hotels and "Armenian branded" hotels is to find a reliable travel agent based in Armenia.

In Yerevan, there are a couple of hostels. Outside Yerevan, there are a few main recreational areas that offer very reasonable accommodations, but you will be required to live without some conveniences. At the high end are some hotels on Lake Sevan and in Northern Lori Marz (50 kilometers from the Georgian border). Here you will miss nothing, but you will pay Western prices for the accommodations. Around Lake Sevan, there are numerous types of cottages and hotels. Prices are reasonable and start at about $10 per day for a cottage with electricity and within walking distance from Lake Sevan. The city of Sevan, due to its proximity to Yerevan, is the most popular place on Lake Sevan but the history, culture and non-Western feel of the accommodations change as you go south on Lake Sevan.

Tavush Marz is a wonderful place to summer. Dilijan and Ijevan are wonderful towns in which to be based, with day trips to the many ancient churches that pepper this remote region. Costs are very reasonable and Dilijan is known for its sanatoriums from the Soviet era. Do not expect hot water all hours of the day, but you can have a lovely room that will accommodate a family, including food for about $20 a day. Take another $20 to hire a car for the day to visit the surrounding historical sites.

Lori Marz is the second most beautiful region after Vayots Dzor. It has many health resort areas such as Stepanavan, Dendropark (Sojut) next to village Gyulagarak. Lori is considered to be the Armenian Switzerland. It has numerous churches, monasteries, medieval bridges and monuments. The Stepanavan area is great for hiking, tasting fresh dairy products, etc. Small hotels and B&Bs are available in the area of StepanavanOdzun, Tumanian, etc.

Tsaghkadzor is a well-known winter retreat. It has many lovely hotels and is popular year round. Check with a travel agent to find the best deal depending on what activity you are looking to undertake. Jermuk, made famous by the bottled water of the same name, is a wonderful get away, but will again require you to leave your western expectations behind.


Armenian language and history. Since Armenians are very proud to be the first nation to adopt Christianity as a State religion, nearly everyone is almost an expert of Armenian history, which goes back to 3000 years. Museum of Ancient scripts, "Matenadaran", which is located in central Yerevan is a place, where one can learn about history and witness ancient (really ancient) manuscripts. [3]


Career Center [4] has job listings. For volunteer work see these links: [5], [6], [7].

Stay safe

Overall, Yerevan is a safe city, though theft and pickpocketing are not unheard of, particularly targeting foreigners. Use common sense and usual precautions when walking on the street at night, especially after drinking.

Female visitors should be aware that unaccompanied women are an unusual sight after dark. In the outskirts of the city, a single woman walking alone at night may attract attention.

Official airport taxis cost about 5,000 dram. There are also people at the Zvartnots airport who ask you if you need a taxi as you exit. They will often offer a better price (about half price) than the official taxi as they have already dropped off a passenger and are looking for any possible fare back - though you will have to walk a bit further to get to their cab. However if they try to charge you anything more than the agreed price at the end, claiming a misundertanding or anything else, absolutely refuse and threaten to call the police. They will accept the agreed price.

Stay healthy

If you are dining with Armenians, they will feed you until you cannot eat any more. The food is generally safe, even from the roadside khorovats stands.

The tap water is generally safe, as it comes directly from mountains, but it's safer to stick to bottled water. You can get both mineral water with gas and normal spring water on almost every street corner. This water is available in both the rural areas and the capital.


Armenia has restrictive non-smoking laws that are widely ignored. The country has the highest rate of cigarette smoking among men in Europe. If you see an ashtray on the table, you can smoke there.

Non-smoking restaurants and cafes are available and multiplying quickly. French bakery type eateries and wine bars are typically non-smoking havens.


Armenians are much like any other Europeans in their manners and lifestyle, though a bit more on the traditional end of the spectrum in some ways.

Feel free to discuss the Karabakh conflict and settlement in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. Unlike Azerbaijan, it is not a sensitive topic, or something to tip-toe around.

The issue of the Armenian Genocide, in which up to one and a half million Armenians were killed by the Young Turk government during World War One, is still denied by Turkey. If you were to question whether it happened you would probably be considered ignorant or rude. One can find out more about the Armenian Genocide by visiting the museum at the 'Tsitsernakaberd' Genocide Memorial.

Many Armenians believe that Russian rule saved Armenia from complete Turkish extermination, and many Armenians are Slavophiles. Armenians do not mind if you speak to them in Russian, unlike some other post-communist countries.

It is very common to give up your seat for an elderly passenger on the public transport. Usually, men will give up their seat to women too. It is also considered polite to let women first to the bus or train or to enter a room, and the "ladies first" rule is considered important.

When visiting churches, both men and women are supposed to dress modestly (i.e. no shorts, miniskirts, sleeveless shirts/tops etc.), though most churches don't say anything to tourists passing through. Since entrance is free, lighting a candle can be a nice, but completely optional gesture. You should always talk quietly when you are visiting a church.


Yerevan is full of cafes with free wifi. These are beginning to pop up in a number of towns outside of Yerevan as well. Many hotels and cafes provide WiFi for their guests. International calling is available through prepaid mobile phone cards using a landline. Mobile phone companies often offer special prefixes to dial before the number to use VoIP, which is extremely cheap, and a good quality call. Short-term mobile phone rental is also possible. Regular calls can always be made from the post office, and is cheap within Armenia, but a bit expensive for international calls. Try to find a phone office that uses the internet for much cheaper rates. Local calls can be made from kiosks or the rare payphone.

Phone numbers in Armenia are of the form +374 312 57659 where "374" is the country code for Armenia, the next 2-5 digits (starting with a 1, 2, 3 or 4 in the case of land lines) are the area code and the remaining 3 to 6 digits are the "local" part of the subscriber number that can be called from within that particular area code using abbreviated dialing.

Area codes starting with 6 have been assigned to Internet telephony service providers to provide non-geographically based numbers. Mobile phone numbers have two digit mobile prefixes denoting the original network and all begin with a 9 ( Nagorno-Karabakh mobile networks that used to start with a 7 have now been re-numbered to 97).

You need to dial "0" in front of the geographic area code from outside that particular area code (but when still within Armenia).

Mobile numbers in Armenia must always be dialed with all digits (including a "0" prefixing the "9n" from within Armenia), no matter where they are being called from. The 9n is a mobile prefix, not an "area code", as such and the second and sometimes third digits (the n part) denotes the original mobile network assigned. As is the case with most mobile numbers, they can also be called within or outside Armenia using the international format. Most Armenian toll-free numbers and Premium Rate Numbers can not be called from outside Armenia. These numbers have the format 800-23-456.

Mobile phone providers

There are three GSM service providers operating in Armenia. It is strongly advised to acquire a temporary prepaid SIM card as they cheap and convenient, allowing both local and international calls, no charge for incoming calls and no monthly fee. Mobile internet and UMTS are also offered from all companies, as well as the normal full range of wireless services.

VivaCell MTS and Orange have booths offering free SIM-Cards to incoming visitors at the airport. Majority of foreign visitors find their unlocked mobile phones compatible with Armenian SIM cards (GSM 900/1800). GSM coverage maps of Armenia.

  • VivaCell MTS is the leading GSM service provider in Armenia and offers quality service at reasonable rates (owned by the Russian giant MTS). They have the best coverage outside of Yerevan. A VivaCell MTS pre-paid SIM card ("ALO" card) costs 1100-7000 dram, depending on how much starting credit you want. At their flagship store off of Republic Square, VivaCell MTS is very helpful to foreigners and will make sure that you understand everything in English, French or Russian. They offer very low prices for international calls from your phone via a VoIP (be sure to dial 77001+country code+the number!); in fact, it is much cheaper per minute to call the US or Canada (13 dram) or Russia (30 dram) than it is to dial Armenian networks.
  • Orange The French multi-national offers a pre-paid card called Let's Talk with complicated, but competitive rates. All networks in Armenia (35 dram) lower rates may apply within the network or for night-time calls, US or Canada (15 dram), Russia (30 drsm).
  • Beeline (formerly ArmenTel but have switched to the Russian brand) offers a pre-paid card for 1000 dram.

VivaCell MTS and Beeline claim to cover 90% of the Armenian population with 2G services and up to 60% with their 3G services. Orange has the smallest 3G coverage but it is rapidly growing. The 2G coverage of Orange is of around 70% of the population, but the 3G coverage of Orange only covers the capital and the two second biggest cities of Gyumri and Vanadzor. All of these networks are rapidly growing and expanding their coverage of both 2G and 3G services.

VivaCell MTS has a 4G (LTE) network.

On the slopes of the seven hills that surround the city of Medellín in Colombia, life is pretty good. Children play in the streets. Retirees relax in the parks. Workers bustle to and fro as street vendors hawk arepas — maize pancakes topped with cheese, avocado, and more. When I visited the “City of Eternal Spring” in 2014, named for its year-round balmy temperatures, I found its steep residential neighborhoods filled with spaces for art and theater, verdant parks, schools, and public libraries.

It hasn’t been this way very long. In the 1980s and 1990s, Medellín was the most dangerous city in the world. An urban war involving multiple drug cartels, including the Medellín Cartel led by Pablo Escobar, spiked the city’s homicide rate to more than 800 per 100,000 people in 1993. In barrios like Santo Domingo, which were largely built by refugees from the surrounding countryside, crime was a daily fact of life—and police that tried to intervene paid with their lives.

But today the city’s homicide rate sits around 20 per 100,000, far lower than cities like New Orleans and St. Louis. According to Numbeo’s quality of life index, which takes into account factors like life expectancy, crime rate, purchasing power, healthcare, and more, the city ranks alongside New York City, Turin, and Doha. What changed?

The answer glides silently overhead. In 2004, the city’s then-mayor, Sergio Fajardo, cut the ribbon on a scheme that must have seemed ridiculous at the time: a cable car, running from Santo Domingo down to the metro line that snakes through the center of the city. What use was a ski lift in a place where the temperature has never dropped below 46°F (8°C)?

The Medellín cable car system.

But, local politicians argued, the idea made a great deal of sense. The steep sides of the Medellín valley make traditional rail transit impossible. Buses get stuck in the city’s perpetual traffic jams, resulting in a commute to the center that takes at least two hours — each way. A cable car, its growing crowd of supporters said, would let the population of Santo Domingo soar over the dense, irregular neighborhoods below, reaching their destinations in minutes, not hours. It would let them become a real part of the city.

“I grew up with an idea of fear, of danger, of exclusion of those areas,” says Pablo Alvarez Correa, a Medellín local who offers free walking tours of the city, describing his first ride on the cable car. “I decided to go when a friend came to visit me from abroad. It was absolutely amazing. It was very interesting to be able to see the state of development of those areas; to understand that many things had improved for them.”

Those improvements were quantified in a 2012 research paper published in the American Journal of Epidemiology. A team of U.S. and Colombian researchers compared violence in city neighborhoods that had access to the new cable car with similar areas that didn’t, both before and after it was built. “The decline in the homicide rate was 66% greater in [cable car] neighborhoods than in control neighborhoods,” they wrote, “and resident reports of violence decreased 75% more in [cable car] neighborhoods. These results show that interventions in neighborhood physical infrastructure can reduce violence.”

Urban renewal has been focused around the Medellín cable car stations.

Correa concurs that these areas are much safer than they had been previously, noting that the cable car project marked the beginning of greater investment in these previously neglected areas of the city. “The cable car brought the library, and then next to the library they built a little park, and then they built an entrepreneurship center where they empower people from the community to get access to credit or to get coaching in some idea that they had,” he explains.

“Then because tourism started, someone said, ‘Maybe we can start selling street food in these areas where the tourists go by.’ It’s not only about the cable car and that’s it, but it is using it as an excuse or as part of a program to bring many other services.”

Today, the cable car system in the city has been dramatically expanded. Line K, the original line that connected the metro system with the neighborhoods of Acevedo, Andalucía, Popular, and Santo Domingo, was joined by line J in 2008, and line H in December of 2016. A more tourist-oriented line L opened in 2010.

“Before, those areas with the cable car were extremely dangerous, and now they have become the jewel of the crown of Medellín” says Correa. “Now they are very proud because that’s where people come to visit.”

No one knows who invented the first cable-propelled transit system. Its origins are lost in the mists of time, and the technology was almost certainly developed independently in several locations to solve local problems. The first records of people transported by cable-drawn systems go all the way back to a brush drawing of a ropeway (below, centre) in South China in 250 B.C.

Researching the topic can be difficult, primarily because there are seemingly hundreds of different ways to refer to slight variations on the same basic principle. Spend 10 minutes looking into the subject and you’ll find people talking about gondolas, aerial tramways, ropeways, cableways, téléphériques, funiculars, funitels, inclined lifts, and many more.

Historical illustrations of aerial ropeway transportation systems.

“That is actually one of the fundamental research problems that people encounter with the technology,” says urban planning consultant Steven Dale, founder of online cable car resource The Gondola Project, who has dedicated his career to the topic. “The blanket term we use for all the technologies collectively is ‘cable-propelled transit systems’: any system that is supported and propelled by a cable,” he adds.

“There’s probably about a dozen different sub-branches, and those are things like an aerial tram or a jigback, or a pulse, or a mono cable, or a bi-cable. The word gondola is specific to the cabin, but it’s become a kind of catchall term to be used for the system as a whole, particularly in North America. Cable car is another catchall term. It actually technically refers to a very specific type of cable-propelled transit system, but it is so commonly used that we stopped fighting that battle a couple of years ago. We realized it was a pointless battle to fight.”

Cable cars (which I’ll try to stick with for the duration of this article) are very good at solving a specific but increasingly common problem — how to transport cargo or people across topographical obstacles. “Remember topographical doesn’t just mean natural — it can mean man-made as well,” says Dale. “We see all sorts of problems where there’s a 12-lane highway between point A and point B, or there’s an industrial park, or there’s some man-made piece of topography that creates a barrier to access.”

That’s exactly the problem that a Croatian bishop named Fausto Veranzio faced in 1616. One of the earliest urbanists, the Pope had called him to Italy to help deal with the frequent flooding of the Tiber River, which he solved with an ingenious water regulation system. While in Italy, Veranzio wrote and published a book called Machinae Novae, which depicted 56 different inventions, machines, devices, and technical concepts.

Images from Fausto Veranzio’s ‘Machinae Novae,’ 1616.

Inspired by the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci a century earlier, his inventions included several types of mill, a universal clock, wind turbines, a parachute, suspension bridges, and, most interestingly for us here, an aerial lift that crossed the river on multiple ropes. The drawings earned him a global reputation and were so popular that they were even reprinted in Chinese a few years later.

Not long afterwards, in 1644, a Dutch engineer named Adam Wybe was given the task of figuring out how to move large amounts of soil over the Motława River in Gdańsk, Poland, to construct defensive fortifications. His solution was to build the world’s first modern cable car.

Etching of Adam Wybe’s ropeway conveyor in Danzig, by Willem Hondius.

The machine was supported by seven wooden pylons, some 650 feet [200 meters] long, and inspired by existing ropeways. But Wybe nonetheless chalked off some significant firsts. He was the first to use a looped cable (as opposed to a rope), the first to put multiple vehicles on the same cable (120 wicker baskets which could be automatically unloaded), and the first to create a system that was in constant motion (driven by a team of horses).

The Industrial Revolution saw the widespread proliferation of the railway, with automobiles following not far behind, but the period following the Second World War was something of a second renaissance for cable car technology. Shortages of fuel, rubber, steel, and concrete made road and rail transport tricky, particularly in Europe, but cableways required very little in the way of construction materials and were seen as cheap, efficient, and reliable.

The most impressive relic of this time can still be found in the dense pine forests of northern Sweden. In 1942, a group of 1,500 men were hired to clear a path for a ropeway that would take ore from a mine in Kristineberg to Boliden, where it could be processed. Designs were based on a 26-mile [42-kilometer] cableway that had been built a year previously in the center of the country, but this time the material would be traveling much farther — an enormous 60 miles [96 kilometers]. That makes it the longest ever built, even today.

Construction was rapid, and the first ore gondola was sent down the cable on April 14, 1943—more than four months ahead of schedule. The system, named the Norsjö Ropeway, ran for 43 years before it was shut down in 1986, when heavy trucks finally became a more economical way to transport the ore. Today, only an eight-mile [13-kilometer] stretch survives, converted to passenger transport as a tourist attraction.

It wasn’t only Europe where cargo ropeways proved popular. In 1954, a French-American company began mining manganese in Gabon, but the nearest reliable transport route — the Congo-Ocean Railway — was more than 155 miles [250 kilometers] away, across rough terrain.

George Perrineau, an engineer, was tasked with constructing a transport link between the two and he chose to construct a cableway system — the COMILOG Cableway. The route ran from the mine in Moanda to a town called Mbinda, where a new branch of the railway was built to link up to the existing tracks and take the metal to ports in the Republic of Congo. Comprised of 10 sections, the cableway was equipped with 2,200-pound [one-tonne] buckets that could carry manganese 24 hours a day. It operated until 1986 when the government of Gabon, looking to ship the metal through its own ports, routed a new railway to the mine.

The ability of cable car systems to easily link up with existing transport infrastructure, as seen in the COMILOG cableway example, is a key reason for their third modern renaissance — this time as mass transit.

“Imagine a theoretical city where your home is one mile away from the nearest metro stop,” says Dale. “Servicing that last mile is incredibly inefficient. We have [public transport] funding problems because we have to get people to the subways, to the metros, through that last-mile problem. That’s where our inefficiencies mostly build up — because we use inefficient technologies like buses and streetcars.”

But cable cars, Dale says, are ideal for fixing that problem — particularly when you factor in topography. “They can provide very high-frequency service — less than a minute wait times — at a very comparable cost to buses and streetcars. In a first-last-mile problem, they’re beautiful — basically acting as feeding systems.”

He adds: “With a cable car there is virtually no incremental cost in adding capacity and lowering wait times. With a streetcar or bus system, the incremental cost is significant — in order to expand capacity or lower wait times, you need to buy/run more buses/streetcars and then staff them as well.”

In Medellín, this factor made a real difference to the success of the scheme — the cable car system there is fully integrated into the metro network, so riders can use one ticket for both. “Everything is in one zone,” says Correa, “meaning that someone who lives in the poorest barrios can reach the industrial areas paying less than a dollar. The metro started closing the chasm in those economic terms. The price drops because now they don’t have to take two buses.”

Part of the now-defunct coal transportation cableway between Adventdalen and Longyearbyen in Norway.

That success has been noted worldwide. Countries around the globe are now rushing to construct cable car systems in much the same way that they were rushing to construct monorails a few decades ago. The success of the Medellín project inspired its local neighbor, Caracas, to construct its own mass transit cable car, as well as other projects in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Colombia’s capital, Bogotá.

In Iran, the Tochal Telecabin system carries winter sports enthusiasts from the city of Tehran to the enormous Tochal ski complex. In Armenia, the Wings of Tatev cable car ferries religious tourists to the Tatev monastery year-round. Mexico City has a proposal for a cable car, as does Haiti, Vietnam, Lagos, Mombasa, and many other places. The list of current proposals that The Gondola Project tracks is enormous.

“There are a lot of proposals out there,” says Dale. “The majority probably won’t get beyond the proposal stage. That doesn’t negate the validity of the technology.”

Even when they’re built, not all modern cable car projects succeed. In London, in July 2010, the city’s transport authority announced plans for the U.K.’s first urban cable car. Called the Emirates Air Line, the proposal was for a privately funded cable car for pedestrians and cyclists between the Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks.

Planning permission was granted, and construction began, but the cost of the project — originally pegged at £25 million [$31.25 million] — swiftly rose to more than £60 million [$75 million], making it the most expensive cable system ever built. “As someone who happens to know a little bit about cable transit systems, let be me completely blunt,” wrote Dale at the time. “There is absolutely, positively, completely no reason whatsoever this project should cost London taxpayers ~$100m USD. Not a single good reason.”

The Emirates Air Line cable car, named after its sponsor, opened on June 28, 2012, a month before the start of the 2012 London Olympic Games. A total of 34 carriages operate at the same time, with a maximum capacity of 10 passengers each. Crucially, the system — despite appearing on the Tube map — is not integrated with the rest of London’s transport network. Passengers must purchase an extra ticket, costing £3.50, to use it.

While the cable car proved immediately popular among tourists visiting the city for the Olympics, its usage fell swiftly once the Games were over. In November 2012, passenger numbers dropped to less than 10 percent of capacity. For every 10,000 rides, only one was made by a regular commuter. Today, those statistics have been lifted slightly by special, tourist-focused night flights (which serve alcohol) but aren’t much better. The project began to attract major criticism, mostly over its taxpayer funding and location.

The towers of the Emirates Air Line cable car, from the north bank of the River Thames.

In 2015, Transport for London commissioner Mike Brown said that he expected demand for the cable car to grow as the areas that it serves are developed (some dispute this). He also noted that the service has built up a £1-million [$1.25-million] operating surplus. But the reputation of the cable car among Londoners is very poor (attracting the derogatory nickname “dangleway”), and that’s unlikely to change any time soon.

help its scary up here


— EmirateDangleway (@Dangleway) 28 de marzo de 2016

Dale picks out the fare structure and the way the system was sold to Londoners as key reasons why the Emirates Air Line is unpopular, though he insists that it’s not a failure in his eyes. “Your narrative around the system is essential,” he says. “Understanding what you’re trying to do. Are you selling this for tourists? Are you selling this for locals? Is it a hybrid approach where there’s a combination of the two?”

He adds: “Tied to that narrative is your fare structure, because your fare structure is what’s going to determine how this thing makes money or not. So you’ve got to make sure to figure out how to get that right, and that ties into your narrative. They’re two completely different demographics. And if you don’t price those markets differently, you’re leaving money on the table and you’re alienating your locals.”

On The Gondola Project’s blog in January of 2016, Nick Chu wrote: “If anything, the Emirates Air Line is a fascinating case study that offers many important lessons on how cities should, and should not implement urban cable cars and public infrastructure. Aspiring gondola-cities would be wise to pay attention to and learn from its successes and failures.”

The rest of Europe is no doubt cautiously eyeing London’s experience with the Emirates Air Line. In 2021, Paris hopes to become one of the first European cities to implement a modern cable car system aimed at commuters. It’s not trying to be a tourist attraction, nor does it replicate existing transit links. Instead, it hooks up the endpoint of one metro line with more distant suburbs separated by a highway and a steep ridge — exactly the kind of problem that cable cars are great at. It’s being considered in the context of a wider, long-term effort to fix transport issues in Paris’s suburbs.

But Paris isn’t alone — the city of Gothenburg in southern Sweden also has grand plans to build a commuter cable car across the Göta älv River to mark the city’s 400th anniversary. The person in charge of the project is Per Bergström Jonsson, and when I meet him in the city traffic authority’s offices on a cold January morning, he’s surprisingly candid. “When I first got it on my table, I thought, ‘What kind of crazy idea is this?’” he says.

It’s not the city’s first cable car. In 1923, a line was built between the Götaplatsen square and the Liseberg theme park to mark the 300th anniversary of the founding of the city. A century later, the technology is back. “We got the idea from the Gothenburgers,” Jonsson says. “But we have started to realize that cable car technology has big advantages if you compare them to tram lines, or bus lines, or other public transport technologies.”

The 1923 Gothenburg cable car.

The city’s new cable car will run from Järntorget square, over the river to the Lindholmen campus and science park, then up to Wieselgrensplatsen where it meets one of the tram lines that radiate out from the center of the city. The aim is to create a shortcut that people can use to transfer between those tram lines without having to go all the way into the center.

“Two and a half million [people] is at least what we are quite certain will use the cable car as a shortcut in the public transit system,” says Jonsson. “They are already using the transit system, and they will gain from using this as a shortcut. On top of that, we will have tourists, we will have new travelers, and we will have travelers that are pedestrians or cyclists that will change to using the public transport system because of the cable car.”

One interesting unknown is what percentage of users will be scared of heights. “It should be somewhere between eight percent and 12 percent, but we really don’t know,” Jonsson says, admitting a little sheepishly that he’s a member of that group.

“But you must have been on a lot of cable cars,” I say.

“I’ve been in some, and some of them are quite scary,” he replies.

In Sweden, building a new public transport system is a cooperation between the municipality, the region, and often the state, too. The country’s consensus-based decisionmaking culture means that things tend to take a little longer than they might in other countries, so final approval — the “point of no return,” as Jonsson calls it—will arrive in mid-2018. “After that we will start building,” he says.

While the politicians deliberate, his office is in the process of securing the various building permits for the construction — no simple task. The bottom of the cable cars will need to be at least 148 feet [45 meters] above the surface of the river, so that boats can pass underneath. On land, they must pass 98 feet [30 meters] above buildings. “That’s a fire restriction, actually,” says Jonsson. “If you have a fire in the building, so that the cables won’t melt from the fire.”

So far, the public favors the idea. “About 75 percent of Gothenburgers like the idea of traveling with cable cars. Almost 70 percent even like the idea of having the cable car outside their house. That’s remarkably high, so far,” Jonsson says. “The general way of seeing the cable car project is a little bit too cheerful, I think,” he adds, stoically.

To preempt complaints, his office has been actively asking citizens what worries they might have — so they can be solved in the planning phase, before construction begins. The biggest fears are privacy, Jonsson says, and rider safety. “It’s a driverless system. We will have people on the platforms, in the stations, but not in the gondolas, and the ride is four-minutes long. Things could happen during those four minutes. I think that if we don’t solve that in a way that the Gothenburgers accept, we will not build it.”

Gondola designs in Per Bergström Jonsson’s office.

Early ideas to address the rider safety issue include a high frequency of gondolas (“If you are uncomfortable with the persons that you’re about to board with, you can wait,” says Jonsson), safety cameras, a communication system, a staffed cabin every half-hour, and even the ability to reserve individual gondolas at low-traffic times.

Jonsson is also keen to emphasize that the Gothenburg system will be integrated into the city’s tram network — unlike the Emirates Air Line in London, which he describes as “badly planned.” Ridership will be heavily weighted toward locals, who’ll outnumber the tourists at least 10 to one, but Jonsson says that the final numbers will be heavily dependent on how close they can get the cable car terminals to the tram stops. “If we get one and a half minute’s walk, it will be 5,000 [people per day],” he says. “If we have 30 seconds’ walk, it will be 13,000.”

Most impressive of all, though, is the technology that will go into the cable car system itself. The Gothenburg scheme will run on three cables — two for support and one for pulling. That allows for up to almost a half-mile [one kilometer] between towers and exceptional wind stability. Traffic on the city’s bridges is limited at wind speeds of 49 m.p.h. [22 meters per second], but Gothenburg’s cable car should be able to operate safely at speeds of up to 60 m.p.h. [27 meters per second].

“The London system, which is a monocable, shuts down at 14 metres per second [31 m.p.h.]. It’s down about 30 days a year due to wind, and that’s not acceptable for us,” Jonsson says. I ask how many would be acceptable. “One,” he says. “Perhaps a half, one every second year. The cable car won’t be the first system to be shut down when we have bad weather, it will be the buses and the ferries.”

The scheme is due to open on June 4, 2021, and if it’s a success then more lines will follow — along a similar principle of creating shortcuts in the existing transit network. “We will have the first one up and running for one and a half, two years, to see if it’s a good idea,” says Jonsson. “If it turns out to be a popular way of transporting yourself, we will start building the next one four years after that.”

While reporting this story, there was one city that kept popping up — La Paz. The Bolivian capital has the most extensive network of cable cars in the world, named Mi Teleférico, stretching nearly seven miles [11 kilometers] across the city, with another 18.6 miles [30 kilometers] under construction. Cars depart every 12 seconds, seating 10 passengers each, yielding a maximum capacity of 6,000 passengers per hour — a true “subway in the sky.”

“It’s building the backbone of the city’s transit network on cables, and that’s never been done before,” says Dale. “When I said before that they’re really ideally suited to first-mile problems, feeding into a higher-capacity system, La Paz is really challenging that idea, and saying — ‘Hold on a second, why don’t we use this as our trunk, as our main form of public transit’—which is totally unique.”

Ekkehard Assman is the head of marketing for Dopplmayr, an Austrian firm that specializes in the manufacture of cable cars. To date, the company has built more than 14,700 installations in 90 different countries — including the system in La Paz. “It’s more or less the first real cable car network in a city,” he says. “Three lines are already working and have already transported more than 60–70 million people since they began running in 2014. In addition, we’re on the way to building six more lines and I heard a couple of days ago — they’re not signed yet, these contracts — but President Morales has already talked about two more lines.”

Mi Teleférico combines best practices from all around the world. Prices are rock bottom — about 35 cents for a ticket—while usage is almost all local. “There’s not a lot of tourist things going on there,” says Assman. “It’s more or less pure urban transport.”

Mi Teleférico in La Paz.

While the system opened in 2014 amid the growing global craze for cable cars, the city’s precarious topography means that the idea has a much longer history than other projects. In the 1970s, a team working under councilman Mario Mercado Vaca Guzmán planned a route between the neighborhoods of La Ceja and La Florida. In 1990, a feasibility study for a similar route was performed, but ultimately rejected over high fares and low passenger capacities. In 1993, mayoral candidate Mónica Medina included aerial transit as a campaign promise, pledging a system of interconnected cable car lines.

The idea kicked around for another two decades until July 2012, when Bolivian President Evo Morales called together the mayors of La Paz and El Alto and the governor of the La Paz department and finally got them to make it happen. Funds were provided by the country’s national treasury and the Central Bank of Bolivia, and the doors of the cabins opened for business on May 30, 2014.

Like in Medellín, there have been enormous positive effects on social mobility — the cable car runs between La Paz and the neighboring El Alto, a poorer area with a majority indigenous population. Travel between the two areas has historically been difficult, due to a 1,300-foot [400-meter] altitude difference, but the cable car system has broken down the physical barriers between the two dramatically different populations — and perhaps a few of the psychological ones, too.

As a technology, cable cars have a lot of factors in their favor. They bridge tricky terrain. They efficiently get people to and from bigger mass transit systems. They’re cheap to build and maintain, and the newest designs are safe in even extreme weather conditions. They’re modular, quiet, clean, and run on electricity rather than polluting fuel.

It’s also clear that the technology has to power to effect major, positive change in the world’s cities. It’s not as simple as slapping down a cable car and inequality disappears. “Something that we, in Latin America, have learned is that you cannot copy and paste models and expect them to work perfectly,” says Correa. But if integrated well into existing transit networks, sold properly to the locals, and suitably priced, they can deliver tremendous benefits — both to underserved communities and cities as a whole.

But perhaps the most interesting aspect of the technology is the reaction that it generates in people. When confronted with the idea of cable cars as mass transit for the first time, some people respond with horror or fear, others with mirth or excitement. “I think it’s just… what’s the phrase? Lightning in a bottle, a perfect storm, something like that,” says Dale.

In his job as a cable car consultant, he speaks a lot to city planners who’ve been told to go away and research the subject. “I’ll be honest — the first thing that half of our clients say to us when we pick up the phone is: ‘Is this the stupidest idea I’ve ever had?’ You can hear it in their voice, you can hear fear,” he explains. “Because they know if they get it wrong, they’re going to be jumped on at work, they’re going to be humiliated, people are going to laugh at them and all of this.”

The best part of the job, Dale says, is watching people come around to the idea. “I get a thrill, quite honestly, from being able to take people from a place of thinking, ‘This is the most ridiculous idea in the world’ to a place where they go, ‘This actually isn’t ridiculous at all.’

“So many of the decisions that get made in the urban planning sphere are emotional decisions, and to see [planners] actively confronting that fear, that is unbelievably rewarding and unbelievably exciting.”

This post was first published here as part of How We Get To Next’s Going Places series. It is reproduced here under a CC Attribution-ShareAlike license.

Lonely Planet Georgia, Armenia & Azerbaijan (Travel Guide)

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Lonely Planet: The world's leading travel guide publisher

Lonely Planet Georgia, Armenia & Azerbaijan is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Wander the historic winding lanes of Old Town, Georgia, slow down in Azerbaijan at an outdoor cafe, and take in the views at Armenia's mountaintop monasteries; all with your trusted travel companion. Get to the heart of Georgia, Armenia & Azerbaijan and begin your journey now!

Inside the Lonely Planet Georgia, Armenia & Azerbaijan Travel Guide:

Colour maps and images throughout

Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices Honest reviews for all budgets - eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss Cultural insights give you a richer, more rewarding travel experience - history, people, landscape, architecture, greetings, etiquette Over 52 colour maps Covers Georgia, Tbilisi, Abkhazia, Adjara, Great Cauasus, Kakheti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Armenia, Terevan, Azerbaijan, Baku, Naxcivan, Nagorno-Karabakh and more.

Authors: Written and researched by Lonely Planet.

About Lonely Planet: Since 1973, Lonely Planet has become the world's leading travel media company with guidebooks to every destination, an award-winning website, mobile and digital travel products, and a dedicated traveller community. Lonely Planet covers must-see spots but also enables curious travellers to get off beaten paths to understand more of the culture of the places in which they find themselves.

TripAdvisor Travelers' Choice Awards winner in Favorite Travel Guide category for 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015.

Armenia: with Nagorno Karabagh (Bradt Travel Guides)

Deirdre Dr Holding

Armenia has a fascinating history, a vibrant culture and magnificent landscapes - a land strewn with prehistoric sites, medieval monasteries and intricately carved cross-stones, and the most luscious apricots in the world. This completely updated edition of Armenia with Nagorno Karabagh provides the entire practical and background information needed to explore not only the best-known sites but also off the beaten track Armenia.

Armenia. Tourism catalog: Discover beautiful places in Armenia (Travel Guide)

Vladimir Stepanyan

Welcome to Armenia! Armenia tourism catalog is your passport to the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. We hope, that this guide-book will be helpful for tourist. Visit this ancient and new Armenia. This book introduce you most popular Armenian places. This country having a rich present and past. You will see many churches and other architectural monuments.

Armenia - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture

Susan Solomon

Culture Smart! provides essential information on attitudes, beliefs and behavior in different countries, ensuring that you arrive at your destination aware of basic manners, common courtesies, and sensitive issues. These concise guides tell you what to expect, how to behave, and how to establish a rapport with your hosts. This inside knowledge will enable you to steer clear of embarrassing gaffes and mistakes, feel confident in unfamiliar situations, and develop trust, friendships, and successful business relationships. Culture Smart! offers illuminating insights into the culture and society of a particular country. It will help you to turn your visit-whether on business or for pleasure-into a memorable and enriching experience. Contents include: * customs, values, and traditions * historical, religious, and political background * life at home * leisure, social, and cultural life * eating and drinking * do's, don'ts, and taboos * business practices * communication, spoken and unspoken

Learn to Read Armenian in 5 Days

Alex Hakobyan

Learning to read a language with a foreign alphabet can be an intimidating challenge. Even before you can start to study the vocabulary and grammar, you must first decipher this strange new script.

But learning a new alphabet does not have to be so difficult.

Other language courses start by showing a table of the alphabet and then immediately proceed to dialogues and grammatical descriptions. This is not the ideal way to teach a foreign alphabet, and this approach causes many students to get frustrated and give up before they start.

Instead of that approach, Learn to Read Armenian in 5 Days teaches each letter of the Armenian alphabet in a systematic way while providing enough practice along the way to ensure the student learns the entire alphabet.

With this system you will be able to read the Armenian alphabet in only 5 days or less!

In addition to the alphabet, this course teaches more than 150 real Armenian words that were carefully selected to be of maximum benefit to beginning language students. These are the words that you need right away.

Order a copy of Learn to Read Armenian in 5 Days today and start to enjoy the language and culture of Armenia in a way that only reading the language makes possible.

The Armenia Fact and Picture Book: Fun Facts for Kids About Armenia (Turn and Learn)

Gina McIntyre

Turn & Learn presents: The Armenia Fact and Picture Book The Armenia Fact & Picture Book will allow your child to learn more about this world we live in, with a fun and exciting approach that will trigger their imagination.

We're raising our children in an era where attention spans are continuously decreasing. Turn & Learn provides a fun, and interactive way of keep your children engaged and looking forward to learn, with beautiful pictures, coupled with the amazing, fun facts.

Get your kids learning today! Pick up your copy of Turn & Learn's Armenia Fact and Picture book now!

Tour de Armenia

Raffi Youredjian

Some say every inch of this earth has been covered and all the great foolhardy expeditions have already been done. Those people have never cycled around the little known country of Armenia. This is the story of a 1,000-kilometer cycling journey looking for adventure, searching for identity, and quite possibly getting married off along the way.

Horrors of Armenia: The Story of an Eye-witness (1895)

William Willard Howard

William Willard Howard (1860-1933) was the owner and editor of the Warren Ledger. MR. HOWARD has twice visited Asia Minor in connection with the Armenian question. Of the fifteen newspaper correspondents who left London in December, 1894, to investigate the massacres of Armenians in Eastern Turkey, Mr. Howard was the only one who succeeded, at the risk of his life, in penetrating into the interior of the devastated regions. On his second visit, now recently finished, he went as a Relief Commissioner to arrange for the distribution of relief funds. The Turkish government forbade him to enter the country, and put a price on his head ; the Kurds shot at him, bandits captured him, and other servants of the Sultan made his journey perilous.In this little book Mr. Howard speaks from knowledge acquired by nearly a year and a half of personal observation and careful investigation in the distressed country. He is neither an Armenian nor a missionary, and he speaks without race or religious prejudice. His testimony is the testimony of an unbiased American and man of affairs who now comes direct from the blood-soaked land of Armenia. This book published in 1895 has been reformatted for the Kindle and may contain an occasional defect from the original publication or from the reformatting.

Exercise a high degree of caution; see also regional advisories.

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.

Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas (see Advisory)

The border with Azerbaijan, including the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, is closed. A ceasefire has been in effect since May, 1994. However, armed clashes and gunfire along a 5-km buffer zone of the border and ceasefire line may occur sporadically. There are numerous landmines surrounding the conflict zones with Nagorno-Karabakh.


Pickpocketing, mugging, and theft from cars and homes occur. Do not show signs of affluence.


Demonstrations occur and have the potential to suddenly turn violent. They can lead to significant disruptions to traffic and public transportation. Presidential elections took place on February 18, 2013. Related demonstrations and violence could occur. Avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings, follow the advice of local authorities and monitor local media.

Border areas

Exercise a high degree of caution in the land border areas. The land border with Azerbaijan is closed. The land border with Turkey is also closed, although there are regular flights between Yerevan and Istanbul.

Public transportation

Public transportation networks are overcrowded and poorly maintained.

Pedestrians may not have the right of way.

Minibuses are often involved in accidents.

Some roads outside Yerevan are poorly maintained. Do not travel after dark. Poor driving standards, inadequate road signs and poor road conditions make travelling hazardous. Police may set up roadblocks to search vehicles. Winter travel can be extremely hazardous at higher elevations.

Train service is unreliable. Exercise caution when travelling by train. Store personal belongings and documents in a safe place, do not leave the compartment unattended and lock the door from the inside.

Consult our Transportation Safety page in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

General safety information

Identity checks are frequently conducted by Armenian authorities. Carry a photocopy of your passport and leave another one with a relative or a friend at home. Keep passports and valuables in a safe.

Arrange to be met at the airport.

Emergency services

Dial 101 for the fire department, 102 for the police and 103 for ambulance services.


Related Travel Health Notices
Consult a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic preferably six weeks before you travel.

Routine Vaccines

Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.

Vaccines to Consider

You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.


Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.


Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.


Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).


Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives, or with weakened immune systems. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should consider getting vaccinated.

Yellow Fever Vaccination

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
  • There is no risk of yellow fever in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
  • Proof of vaccination is not required to enter this country.
  • Vaccination is not recommended.

Food and Water-borne Diseases

Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.

In some areas in Western Asia, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in Western Asia. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!

Travellers' diarrhea
  • Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
  • Risk of developing travellers’ diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
  • The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.


Insects and Illness

In some areas in Western Asia, certain insects carry and spread diseases like chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, malaria, Rift Valley fever, and West Nile virus.

Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.



There is no risk of malaria in this country.


Animals and Illness

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Certain infections found in some areas in Western Asia, like avian influenza and rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.


Person-to-Person Infections

Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are spread through blood and bodily fluids; practise safer sex.

Medical services and facilities

Medical services and facilities

Medical facilities are below Canadian standards and limited outside Yerevan. Serious medical cases may require evacuation to a country equipped with adequate facilities.

Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.


Homosexual activity is legal but is not widely accepted in Armenian society.

Possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs may result in jail sentences and heavy fines.

There is zero tolerance for drinking and driving.

Photography of military installations or government buildings may result in a penalty. Seek permission from local authorities before taking photographs.

The export of cultural items may be subject to regulations.

An International Driving Permit (IDP) is recommended.

Dual citizenship

Dual citizenship is legally recognized in Armenia, however, Armenian citizenship takes precedence. Therefore, Canadian officials may be limited in their ability to provide consular services to Canadian-Armenian citizens.

Canadians with Armenian citizenship may also be subject to national obligations, such as taxes and military service. Check your status with the Embassy of the Republic of Armenia in Canada. Dual nationals who try to avoid the compulsory military service may be detained for draft evasion and may face hefty fines or imprisonment.

Please see our publication entitled Dual Citizenship: What You Need to Know for more information.


The currency is the Armenian dram (AMD). The economy is primarily cash-based. U.S. dollars and credit cards are generally accepted when paying for hotel accommodation. There are no limitations on exchange of foreign currency. However, amounts exceeding US$10,000 must be declared at border crossings. Some banks, including HSBC, may not accept a foreign bank card at automated banking machines, but withdrawals can be made at the counter with passport identification.


Armenia is located in an active seismic zone.

Landslides can occur.