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Bulgaria

Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България) is a country in the Balkans on the western side of the Black Sea. It's surrounded by Romania to the north, Serbia to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia to the southwest, Greece to the south, and Turkey to the southeast.

Regions

Cities

  • Sofia — the capital and lagest city in Bulgaria, featuring a nice town centre with a Reneissanse and modern influences, many parks including the National park "Vitosha" (which is just minutes away from the city centre), a good nightlife, over 250 historic landmarks and architectural monuments, and a great deal of cultural places of interest. It is one of the oldest cities in Europe
  • Burgas — though known for its commercial port (Port of Burgas) and oil refinery, the city has a picturesque waterfront, nearby downtown and rich shopping areas that make it popular with tourists. In recent years the city hosts the popular music festival "Spirit of Burgas"
  • Gabrovo — A popular tourist destination near the geographic the center of the country, providing quick access to other cities, such as Veliko Tarnovo and Kazanlak, as well as the Balkan Mountains and the ski-resort of Uzana. The architectural-ethnographic resort Etar is situated near the town
  • Pleven — a historical city, famous for its Panorama monument and for its beautiful parks and fountains in the city centre
  • Plovdiv — the nation's second largest city, situated on the both banks of the Maritsa river, it boasts a lovely shopping promenade and many parks. An ancient city with influences from many epochs including a preserved ancient Greek amphitheatre, a Roman stadium, a "Bulgarian revival" style Old Town, and a variety of mosques, catholic cathedrals and orthodox churches all across the city. Plovdiv is also famous in the country for its hectic nightlife. Though the city has a modern lifestyle it is one of the oldest in the world and debatably - the oldest in Europe. Be sure also to take a side trip to Bachkovo Monastery which is about an hour away
  • Rousse — known as the "Small Vienna", the town centre offers an impressive architectural Baroque ensemble that cannot be found any place else within Bulgaria. The city boasts various places of interest among which the Sexiginta Prista Roman Castle, Rousse's Theatre, The House of Caliopa, and the Pantheon
  • Varna — the nation's third largest city is a lovely combination of a beach resort with a famous nightlife and an urban centre. Varna's coast garden is filled with entertainments and can also be appreciated by art lovers
  • Veliko Tarnovo — picturesque university city near the Yantra river that was the capital of medieval Bulgarian Empire and still has one of the best preserved medieval fortresses on its background

Other destinations

  • Central Balkan National Park
  • Dragoman Marsh
  • Etar Architectural-Ethnographic Complex (or just Etara) - the open-air museum of Bulgarian crafts and culture of the 18th century in "Bulgarka" National Nature Park, near the town of Gabrovo
  • Pirin National Park

Understand

Being located close to the Turkish Straits means the key land routes from Europe to the Middle East and Asia pass through Bulgaria. Thanks to this location, the territory of the country has been of interest to many peoples that have left their impact on the land. Remains of various civilizations and epochs are scattered all across the country and can still be seen today. From the tombs of the mighty Thracian kings, through the theatres of the ancient Greeks and the stadiums of the Roman Empire, to the medieval castles of the kings of the First and Second Bulgarian Empire, and the mosques from the Ottoman rule.

Present-day Bulgaria is one of the few remaining exotic destinations of Europe, because it boasts sublime beaches on its seaside, lovely churches and winter sport opportunities in its mountains, as well as a unique architectural ensemble of modern, classic and ethical styles in each of its cities and towns, to name a few. Although it is not as well travelled as other countries in Europe, it is a beautiful place, with a wide range of activities for the traveller to do. Despite not being a large country (approximately the size of Cuba, Portugal or the state of Virginia), Bulgaria offers a wide diversity of landscapes, each possessing its own unique beauty. Because of its natural diversity there is a great number of tourism opportunities in the country.

"When God gave the peoples of the world their lands, He had forgotten about the Bulgarians, and because there was no land left for them, He tore a piece of Heaven for them." - a Bulgarian saying.

Geography

Terrain

The Balkan mountain chain separates North from South Bulgaria as it goes all the way from the furthest northwestern parts of the country to the east ending on the coast of the Black Sea. In its South, the terrain of Bulgaria is dominated by high mountains and river valleys taking up almost all of the western and the southernmost areas of the country. The South also includes the Thracian plain and the low mountains of Strandzha and Sakar. The territory of North Bulgaria is entirely lowlands. Eastern Bulgaria is all coasts and beaches of the Black Sea.

Highest point: Mount "Musala" in Rila mountain - 2925m (highest peak in Eastern Europe)

Climate

Continental in most of the interior: moderately cold winters with occasional heavy snowfalls; hot and dry or mildly humid summers. Temperate on the coast: mild autumns, cool winters, mild springs and warm and breezy summers. Subtropical in its South-West: mild winters with more rain than snow in the lower grounds; hot and humid summers.

The temperatures during the winter period average between -5°С and 0°С in the plains, between -2°С and 3°С at the seaside, and between -10°С and -6°С in the mountains. The winter extremes usually reach -15°С in the inhabited areas, with the occasional -25°С during cold years.

In the summer the temperatures vary from 25°С to 30°С in the plains, from 21°С to 28°С on the coast of the Black Sea, and from 18°С to 21°С in the mountains. The extremes in summer pass 40°С and occasionally the temperatures in the plains near the rivers reach 46°С-48°С.

History

Ancient World

See also: Ancient Greece, Roman Empire

Excavations have found artifacts dating back to 5000 B.C. The territory of the country has been continuously inhabited from then on and various peoples and communities have lived on the grounds of present-day Bulgaria. In ancient Greek times the region had numerous towns established in it, with some of them still standing as cities and towns in Bulgaria. In later ages the area of modern Bulgaria was part of the Roman Empire with tree provinces. In the beginning of the Middle Ages some Slavic tribes settled on the Balkans, and in the late 7th century a branch of them merged with the Proto-Bulgarians - a Central Asian tribe coming along with the last waves of the Great Migration - to form the first Bulgarian state on the Balkans.

First and Second Bulgarian Empires

In succeeding centuries, Bulgarian and the Byzantine Empires dominated South-East Europe, with constant changes in the proportion of power and influence that the empires had in this part of the world. At times the Bulgarians were days away from conquering the cradle of civilization of that period: the Byzantine capital Constantinople; and at times, the Byzantines made fatal blows on the Bulgarian state. During the Middle Ages Bulgaria was the centre of Slavic culture and one of the focal points of Christianity. Religious literature and fine arts were developed in Bulgarian schools and the country was famous for its hand crafts. Bulgaria was the first state to adopt the Cyrillic alphabet (in its primal form) as its own writing system in 886 A.D. The first "Golden Age" of Bulgaria lasted from about 811 A.D. to 924 A.D. during the rule of knyaz Boris I and of tzar Simeon the Great, kings of the First Bulgarian Empire. The second Golden Age in the state was from 1200 A.D. to 1241 A.D. in the reign of tzar Ivan Asen II, king of the Second Bulgarian Empire. He was a ruler of the Asenevtsi dynasty, a house that re-established the Bulgarian state after it had fallen from the Byzantine Empire and was "absent from the map" for nearly two hundred years until 1185. The rule of Asenevtsi is famous for crushing the crusaders after they gave up on their aim to conquer the holy lands and turned against Orthodox Christianity. Around and after the battle with the crusaders the rulers of the Second Bulgarian Empire had a reign of supremacy in this part of Europe as the state has become the largest and most powerful in "the neighbourhood".

Ottoman Rule

See also: Ottoman Empire

But by the end of the 14th century the region was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. The Bulgarians, along with the other Balkan peoples, became part of the Ottoman Empire. Five centuries later, in 1878, Bulgaria was liberated with extensive help from the Russian Empire as part of their larger fight against the Ottoman Empire. The country's iconic heroes include freedom fighters and intellectuals from the time of the Ottoman rule. Some of the most prominent are: Father Paisiy, Georgi Sava Rakovski - the revolutionary strategist, Vasil Levski - the Apostle of Freedom, and Hristo Botev - poet and fighter. Bulgaria gained its de facto independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1908.

Third Bulgarian State

See also: World War II in Europe, Cold War Europe

After a series of bloody and brutal Balkan wars and a national catastrophe, Bulgaria had the further misfortune to be occupied by the losing side in both World Wars, and fell within the Soviet sphere of influence during the Cold War. It became a People's Republic in 1946, with the communist party in the leader position. During Communist times, the Black Sea was a favorite destination for travellers behind the Iron Curtain and many of the resorts in the country were built in that era. In the end of 1989 the communist domination was brought to a swift end. Though Bulgaria held multi-party elections, many communist politicians stayed in power with re-branded socialist policies. Hyperinflation and economic meltdown made long retired workers to go begging in the streets to supplement their now-worthless pensions, young people to start shady businesses and the community to look up to leaders of the mafia for help. The situation finally drove the old guard out of power in 1997, but the country was in a tough political situation because of the spread of the influence of the "underground processes" in all the levels of the government.

Today, reforms and democratization have brought Bulgaria into the NATO fold, with EU accession celebrated in 2007. Bulgaria planned to drop its national currency, the lev, and join the Eurozone in 2015, but these plans are on hold. Though it has a relatively stable economy and low debt, it is still one of the European Union's poorest members. For travellers this means a poor road infrastructure, but fairly cheap meals and hotels if you look around. Increasing numbers of western Europeans travel throughout the country and many have bought vacation houses near the Black Sea or in picturesque villages.

Holidays

The Hanging of Vasil Levski, 19 February

The day that the Bulgarian people honour the life and the work of the revolutionary Vasil Levski - the Apostle of Freedom. (this is not a public holiday)

Baba Marta (Bulgarian: Баба Марта, meaning Grandma Marta), 1 March.

A very old Bulgarian holiday. People give each martenitsa (Bulgarian: мартеница), a type of white-red yarn, as a symbol of health. (this is not a public holiday)

Liberation Day (Bulgarian: Освобождение на България), 3 March.

The national holiday Bulgaria celebrates its liberation from 500 years of Ottoman domination. On 3 March 1878 the Treaty of San Stefano between was signed, ending the Russo-Turkish War 1877-78 leading to the formation of the Principality of Bulgaria. (The National Day)

The April Uprising (Bulgarian: Априлско въстание), 20 April.

20 April 1876 was the official start day the greatest uprising of the Bulgarian people against the Ottoman rule. (this is not a public holiday)

Gergyovden - Day of Courage and The Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian: Гергьовден), 6 May.

St. George's day and official holiday of the Bulgarian army. There is a military parade in celebration of courage.

Day of Bulgarian Enlightenment and Culture, and The Slavic Alphabet (Bulgarian: Ден на българската просвета и култура и на славянската писменост), 24 May.

The day of St. Cyril (827-869), and St. Methodius (826-884), who created the Cyrillic alphabet. A beautiful holiday - with lots of flowers, music, and joy. Celebrated for the first time in 1851 it is known as the holiday of students and teachers.

Day of Botev and The Fallen for The Freedom and Independence of Bulgaria, 2 June.

Every year on 2 June at noon, sirens sound for one minute to honour the death of those who have fallen in pursuit of liberation and independence from the Ottoman Empire. On 2 June 1876 the poet and revolutionary Hristo Botev died in battle on mount Vola in the Stara Planina mountain. (this is not a public holiday)

Golyama Bogoroditsa - Assumption Day (Bulgarian: Голяма Богородица), 15 August.

There are big celebrations, especially in the main monasteries, with icons being paraded by the monks. (this is not a public holiday)

Reunification Day (Bulgarian: Денят на Съединението), September 6.

The day the two parts of Bulgaria - the Principality of Bulgaria and East Rumelia (autonomous in the Ottoman Empire) - were reunited.

Independence Day (Bulgarian: Денят на Независимостта на България ), 22 September.

Bulgaria's de jure declaration of independence was declared on 22 September 1908 in Veliko Turnovo

Christmas (Bulgarian: Рождество Христово), 25 & 26 December.

Get in

Bulgaria is committed to implementing the Schengen Agreement although it hasn't yet done so. For citizens of the European Union (EU) or European Free Trade Area (EFTA) (i.e. Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. Other nationalities will generally require a passport for entry.

Travel to/from any other country (Schengen or not) from/to Bulgaria will (as of now) result in the normal immigration checks, although customs checks will be waived when travelling to/from another EU country.

Inquire with your travel agent or with the local embassy or consulate of Bulgaria.

By plane

There are four international airports in Bulgaria, located in the cities of SofiaVarna, Bourgas, and Plovdiv, but the traditional flag carriers (like Lufthansa, British Airways, Turkish Airways) fly only to Sofia International Airport. There are a lot of charter and last-minute flight offers, however, to Varna or Bourgas leaving from Western Europe (especially Germany and Great Britain). Using those, you can go from German airports to Bulgaria and back for less than €100, if you are lucky.

Several low-cost airlines have also started offering regular flights to Bulgaria.

  • Wizz Air direct regular flights between Sofia and Barcelona, Brussels, Budapest, Dortmund, Eindhoven, Frankfurt Hahn, Froli, Larnaca, London Luton, Madrid, Milan, Paris, Rome, Valencia and Venice. Also, the airline flies every week directly between Burgas and Budapest, Katowice, London Luton, Poznan, Prague, Warsaw Chopin, Warsaw-Modlin, and the flights from and to Varna are towards Budapest and London Luton.
  • germanwings offers flights to several European destinations.
  • EasyJet flies between Sofia and Berlin, London Gatwick, London Stansted, and Manchester.
  • Ryanair flies between Plovdiv and London Stansted, and Frankfurt Hahn.

Charter flights can offer very good prices to the Black Sea airports of Varna and Burgas from a large variety of European cities in the summer (such as: Thomas Cook, Thomsonfly, Balkan Holidays Air [1], Bulgarian Air Charter, Monarch, Condor, Transaero, Utair and many others).

From the USA, major airlines offer excellent connections to Bulgaria via Europe. The airports that you can get to with a major airline are Sofia and Varna.

Also, there are internal flights between Sofia and Varna, as well as between Sofia and Burgas with the national flag carrier Bulgaria Air [2]

By train

International trains provide a large number of routes to Bulgaria, notably Sofia and Varna, arriving from such places as Kiev, Istanbul, Vienna, and other common cities.

The primary trains from Bucharest to Sofia, and back, run twice daily through the border city of Rousse. For example, recent trains are scheduled from Bucharest to Sofia in the daytime departing 11:35/arriving 21:30 and a night train departing 19:35/arriving 06:10. Romanian passport control occurs in Giurgiu and Bulgarian passport control takes place in Rousse, both approximately mid-trip. Check local train stations for updated information.

A cheap way of traveling to or from Bulgaria might be the Balkan Flexipass.

From 2011-2014 Greece had suspended all international trains, including the one from Sofia to Thessaloniki. However, these have now been reinstated.

By car

If you want to reach Bulgaria from Western Europe by car you will have to pass through either Serbia or Romania, or you can take a ferry from Italy to Greece.

The shortest distance path from Western Europe to Bulgaria is through Serbia. However, you should make sure that you have a green card with you as Serbia is not a part of the EU. Also, the most used Serbian path to Bulgaria (through Nis) has been a narrow mountain road that can be exhausting to drive on because of the heavy traffic. Recently, the construction of a motor highway has been started in Serbia connecting its eastern part to Bulgaria, and traffic through the country should be freed up in the near future.

The other roads-only path to Bulgaria, through Romania, is longer in distance but can take up much less time as Romania has highways connecting its borders with Western Europe to Bulgaria and as a part of the EU, citizens of the union have less formalities on Romanian borders. The path is also very suitable for people travelling from Northern Europe.

Travelling through Greece, after passing Thessaloniki you can choose from three paths depending on your final destination. If you are going towards Sofia, Western or North Bulgaria, the fastest and shortest route is towards Serres and then to the border Promahonas - Kulata. If youur destination is somewhere in the Rhodopes (Smolyan, Pamporovo, Kurdzhali) or near Plovdiv, the shortest route is towards Xanti (passing near Kavala) and then to the border Thermes - Zlatograd. This route however still needs reconstruction in Greece. Finally, if going to the Bugarian seaside the fastest route is towards Komotini (parring near Kavala and Xanti) and then to the border Ormenio - Captain Petko Voyvoda.

In Bulgaria you have to pay road tax at the border (around €5 for 7 days). You will get a special sticker that you have to place on your car. There are no toll stations on Bulgarian roads.

Besides the sticker, you may need to pay the Bulgarian authorities health insurance (2 euros per person for 3 days, slightly more for more days). Make sure you get a receipt! Expect long queues on certain days coinciding with some Bulgarian holidays.

By bus

Buses to and from Sofia go to most major cities in Europe - while Bulgarian bus companies will be cheaper (and mostly offer less comfort), the tickets are hard to get by if you are travelling to Bulgaria, so you can always take Eurolines buses. Don't be surprised if an extra "border fee" is asked from each traveller by the bus driver - it makes your border passing quicker. Most buses from Western Europe will pass through Serbia, so be sure to check if you need a transit visa beforehand (Serbian visas for citizens of the EU have been abolished).

By boat

There are no regular boats to Bulgaria. Occasionally there are cruise ships docking in Varna and Burgas.

Get around

By bus

The fastest way to travel around the country is by bus. Buses frequently connect all the larger cities (you might have to ask or be driven by taxi to the bus station). Timetables information in English can be found online ([3] or [4]). Always confirm times locally as online resources are possibly incomplete or out of date. Most bus station agents (except at the Black Sea and in Sofia) as well as the drivers will not speak or understand any languages except Bulgarian (and, if you are lucky, Russian) and the destinations will be written exclusively in Cyrillic. You can look up bus schedules for the Sofia New Central at the bus station [5] .

Travelling from Sofia to major cities in Bulgaria by bus is a good value. A one way ticket to the Black Sea from Sofia is around €12-15. Several companies operate regular routes serviced by new and modern buses. Timetables and prices in English for couple of the major companies can be found at GRUP Plus [6] and Biomet [7].

There are other bus stations in Sofia and also some private buses depart from their own personal station, but for travellers just looking to get out of town with the least amount of confusion - using the New Central Bus Station may be easiest.

Buses and minibuses go from Varna and Bourgas along the coastline, passing or going to all Bulgarian Black Sea tourist resorts.

By train

Travelling by train is inexpensive, but also slower than by bus. Trains are most useful when travelling along the two major train routes: Sofia - Varna and Sofia - Bourgas. You can travel both routes overnight, but you should make your reservations early because these night trains are often fully booked.

The official website of the Bulgarian State Railways (BDZ) [8] is user-friendly and offers an easy-to-use online timetable [9]. Another train planner is available on [10] [11].

Also be aware that most Bulgarian train carriages are more than 20 years old, are a mixture of older Bulgarian stock and old German rolling stock (mainly former Interregio coaches) and not always well maintained, in particular the toilets will appear primitive to most western users.

There are newer, quite comfortable, Desiro trains built by Siemens (identical to those in use in countries further west) being introduced on the: Sofia to Plovdiv; Plovdiv to Karlovo and Asenovgrad; and Sofia to Blagoevgrad routes. BDZ has also renovated some older cars and uses them for their premium product now, called IC, which is a fast train with obligatory reservations and 2+1 seating even in 2nd class and pretty comfortable and clean seats.

Buying train tickets is pretty fast forward, though most people will buy a ticket 10 minutes before departure, as your ticket is usually valid for a specific train. If you don't know which train you want to use, you can also buy a ticket in the train without penalty. If your journey starts at the same point as the train starts, you might also be able to buy a reservation for a specific seat on a specific train for very little surcharge (0,30 leva). Though it never seems to work from stations in between.

First class usually cost about 30% more than 2nd class and is usually not notably more comfortable (3 seats in a row instead of four).

If you buy a return ticket, you might get a discount of 30% for the whole journey, compared to buying two separate tickets. If you do this you need to get the ticket stamped at the station ticket office before your return journey, as it might be invalid otherwise.

There is discount for travelling in group.

People interested in railways should visit the Rhodopes train, which starts at Septemvri and goes up to Dobrinisthe, passing through Bansko. This narrow gauge (760mm) train passes through a very scenic landscape, climbing up the Rhodopes mountains, reaching the top and then going down again in 4,5 hours for 125 km (30 km/h average speed). It takes a while, but it's a real good experience to see some parts of rural Bulgarian life.

By taxi

Many taxi drivers know only limited English so it is useful to write out your destination or carry a map. Taxi tariffs in Bulgaria are standardized in the major cities. One should be extremely careful about using a taxi in Bulgaria. Especially since you are a foreigner, you can definitely become a target of unscrupulous taxi drivers. When in need, get familiar with the most well-known taxi operators in your area, your route and expected bill. Generally the safest way of using a taxi is by ordering a taxi by phone. Some fraudulent taxis even mimic others' logos and labels on their cars. Definitely avoid using taxis waiting at airports and railway stations! The Sofia and Varna airports are exceptions: both airports contracted with licensed taxi companies. Only these companies can enter the airport area and pickup passengers - prices are standard.

By car

If traveling by car, it would be helpful if you can read the Cyrillic alphabet at least a bit. Most signs at the major roads have the direction shown in Latin letters, but the signs in the internal road system are exclusively in Cyrillic, so if you are planning a road trip, GPS navigation or a road map are recommended.

If you are a foreigner, its best to rent a car. If you decide to rent a car bear in mind that for any bump or scrape to the car, whether involving a third party or not, you must immediately call the police to come and establish the damages of the incident for the insurance companies, otherwise you will find that your insurance will not cover the damage. Check the Terms & Conditions of your rental agreement closely.

Driving in Bulgaria can be a bit precarious - many roads do not have well defined lanes as they are not well marked, and are in poor conditions with bumps and holes on them. On all but the major roads, expect to find significant pot holes and uneven surfaces. Due to the poor road surfaces, you will often find cars driving on the wrong side of the road to avoid these holes, so be cautious when driving around blind bends. Locals often do not observe speed limits, do not signal when changing lanes, take up dangerous manoeuvres on the road and are very nervous on behind the wheel. When travelling on the road Sofia-Greece, be very careful. There are extensive road reconstructions and you can meet some really dangerous drivers.

If you observe the rules, police will not bother you. Bulgarian police have white Opel Astra patrol cars, marked "POLICE" with blue letters - keep that in mind, because in the past there have been several cases of fake police officers stopping cars and robbing travellers. Should you ever doubt the authority stopping you, you have the right to ask them to identify themselves with a certificate issued by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Министерсво на вътрешните работи - МВР).

Never ever drink and drive in Bulgaria! This is always dangerous, and in Bulgaria it is a heavy criminal act: your first offence will result in a long prison sentence or at least - a very significant fee. The once-common practice of bribing a police officer to get out of a speeding or parking ticket is becoming the exception.

Car theft isn't much of a risk, but shouldn't be underestimated. In rural areas leaving your car should be safe, but in the big cities or tourist spots, it is advisable to stay on the safe side by parking either on the major streets or on guarded garages, where fees range from 6 leva (€3) a day to 2 leva (€1) an hour. If you plan to spend more time in one city, it might be better to rent a parking space, which on the average costs 60 leva (€30) a month. Most hotels have their own parking, and even at private lodgings it is often possible to park the car in the garden or so, just ask.

By plane

Air travel is still not very common in Bulgaria as distances are relatively short.

Bulgaria Air, the national carrier travels everyday from Sofia to Varna and Burgas. Off peak deals can be found for €25 round trip after taxes

WizzAir travels four times a week between Sofia and Varna. Off peak travel can be as cheap as €20 round trip after taxes

Their timetables can be found on their official websites or altogether on BGrazpisanie.com [12]

Talk

See also: Bulgarian phrasebook

Bulgarian is a southern Slavic language that uses the Cyrillic alphabet.

Bulgarian is mutually intelligible with Macedonian (considered a variant of Bulgarian by many Bulgarians) and also closely related to Serbo-Croatian. Russian and other Slavic languages are more distantly related but still similar. If you know any of these, you shouldn't have much problems getting by.

Turkish is spoken natively by the Turks of Bulgaria, who live mostly in the Southern mountains and the further Northeast.

It is also important to remember the fact that many Bulgarians - contrary to most nationalities - shake their head for Yes and nod for No! It is better to rely on the words "da" for yes and "ne" for no than on head movements.

Bulgarian education emphasizes foreign language studies, and especially the English language. Older people may speak Russian, as it was a compulsory second language in schools during the communist era. The use of Russian has been declining since the collapse of the iron curtain, with English now being far more popular. In the south people often understand Greek and Turkish.

See

There is a wide variety of historical, natural, religious and artistic sights to see in Bulgaria. All across the country there are remains of different epochs and eras, societies and peoples, spiritual and artistic personae that create a beautiful mix of ethnic culture full of unique traditions and rituals combined with a sense of belonging to the movements that have shaped the world as we know it today. The Bulgarian tourist movement, established more than one hundred years ago, has promoted the acknowledgement of all the sights that form the distinguished Bulgarian identity through its so called "100 Tourist Sites of Bulgaria" program [13] that covers most of Bulgaria's must-see attractions. Of course, nowadays the program includes more than two hundred and fifty one-of-a-kind places of interest but the name still remains. Some of the most popular sites include:

  • UNESCO's World Heritage sites: Ancient City of Nessebar, Boyana church, Madara Rider stone carving, Rila Monastery, Rock-Hewn Churches of Ivanovo, Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak, Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari being the historical, and Pirin National Park, Srebarna Nature Reserve being the natural.
  • the other great monasteries of Bulgaria that have been centres of Bulgarian culture during the Ottoman rule such as Bachkovo Monastery, Troyan Monastery, Dryanovo Monastery, Osenovlag Monastery, etc.
  • the natural creations in the Bulgarian mountains that are a combination of awe to the beautiful natural forms and the exciting feeling of danger in the face of the sharp edges and deep ravines created solely by wind and water. Some of the most popular natural creations are the caves Dyavolsko Garlo (Bulgarian: Дяволското гърло, The Devil's Throat), Ledenika (Bulgarian: Леденика, The Ice-Cold), Magurata which has cave paintings on its walls and Snezhanka (Bulgarian: Снежанка, the Snow White), the canyons of Trigrad and the river Erma, Chudnite Mostove (Bulgarian: Чудните мостове, The Marvelous Bridges) rock phenomena, and the natural pyramids near the town of Melnik and the ones near the village Stob.
  • the still-standing fortresses from the Middle Ages such as Tsarevets in Veliko Tarnovo, Baba Vida in Vidin, Tsari Mali Grad near Samokov, the Fort of Samuil near the village of Strumeshnica and the Fort of Asenevtsi near Asenovgrad.
  • the remains from the cities of Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire in SofiaPlovdiv, Nessebar, SozopolRazgrad and many many other cities and towns
  • the architectural historical reserves like the towns of KoprivshtitsaBozhentsi, or Daskalolivnitsa in the town of Elena, Plovdiv's Old Town, the Varosha neighbourhood in Blagoevgrad and the neighbourhood of Arbanasi in Veliko Tarnovo
  • the sacred places of Perperikon and Rupite, the many ancient and medieval churches in the country, and the tombs of the Thracian kings
  • the sites of historical significance for the Bulgarian people, because of the acts of those who have been on those places such as mount Shipka, mount Okolchitsa, the area Oborishte, the homes of Vasil Levski and Ivan Vazov, and the church in Batak among many other places

Bulgarian culture includes a many unique and interesting to see traditional rituals some of which have been around since pagan times and are still performed. Some of the most interesting rituals are:

  • nestinarstvo - a fire ritual originating from the villages in the mountain Strandzha that involves barefoot dancing on soldering embers. Originally it was performed on the square of some Strandzhan villages, but nowadays it can be viewed in many places throughout the country on the night of Sts. Constantine and Helen - 3 versus 4 July. It is a unique mixture of Eastern Orthodox Christian beliefs and pagan rituals in the Strandzha mountains
  • surva - a new years ritual for hood luck and health. It is performed by young children (up to the age of 12) on New Year's Day, by tapping the older than them relatives on the back with the help of a survachka (a rod made of cornel tree sticks, decorated with wool, dried fruit and pop-corn) and reciting a text for their fortune
  • kukerstvo - a traditional Bulgarian ritual performed to scare away the evil spirits. The ritual is performed by men wearing grotesque masks and clothes made out of animal furs, horns and hooves, and belts with large bells. The men are dancing, making loud sounds with the bells on their belts, chasing away the evil spirits in order to ensure a good harvest, health and good luck throughout the year. The ritual is usually done around New Year at night when "the monsters lurk"

Do

Hiking - It is a popular activity in Bulgaria, where a big choice of regions for a day or multyday walking trips is available. The best time for hiking in the highest parts of the mountains is in summer, between late June and September as the snow is already melted and the weather is generally dry. In winter, snowshoeing and ski trips are possible between December and March, depending on the current snow and weather conditions.The main hiking areas are:

  • in the Balkan - this mountain chain gives the name of the Balkan Peninsula. It stretches all along the country and is popular among the fans of the long distance hiking trips. One of the famous European Long Distance Routes (E3) follows its main southern ridge all the way from the west border of the country to the seaside. One of the three national parks in Bulgaria - National Park Central Balkan - is situated here. Also, on the northern side of the mountain is Nature Park Bulgarka. Both parks are protected areas as they contain rare and endangered wildlife species and communities, self-regulating ecosystems of biological diversity, as well as historical sites of global cultural and scientific significance.
  • in Bulgarian Shopluk - The highest point of the Balkans (Mount Musala - 2925m ) is situated in Rila. Beside it, the northwestern parts of the mountain are a popular hiking destination, rich to nature and cultural sights as the Seven Lakes Cirque, Skakavitsa Waterfall (the highest in Rila), the Rila Monastery and the area of Malyovitsa. National Park Rila, which is the biggest in Bulgaria, is situated here.
  • in Pirin - Located south from Rila and close to Greece and the Mediterranean Sea, these mountains are famous with the biggest number of sunny days per year among the mountain ranges in Bulgaria. The most popular hiking area is Northern Pirin. Its highest peak (Mount Vihren - 2914m) is the third highest the Balkans, after mount Musala in Rila and mount Mitikas in Olympus, Greece. Another popular route follows the main ridge of the mountains, crossing a landmark, called "The Foal" - a very tiny part of the ridge, which is secured and accessible for hikers. National Park Pirin is established to protect the nature in these mountains. Pirin is also famous with a number of blue high mountain glacier lakes.
  • in the Rhodope Mountains - Located in South Bulgaria, the Rhodopes take up nearly one-eight part of the territory of the country. The landscapes here are quite different than in those of Rila and Pirin - there is no such a jagged peaks, but endless "sea" of green hills and a number of small villages between them. The Rhodopes offer a lot of opportunities for easy hiking in combination with getting to know the local culture and traditions. The area is inhabited from an old time and nowadays both Christians and Muslims live here and contribute to the unique local culture. The Rhodopes are known as the home of Orpheus - the mythical Greek musician and poet who entered the underworld to revive his beloved wife Eurydice.

There is an extensive network of marked tourist trails available and this allows a large number of different routes. The main accommodation in Balkan, Rila and Pirin mountains are the mountain huts and lodges, which usually offer rustic conditions, but there are also numerous three- and four-star hotels near populat tourist destinations. In the Rhodopes it is possible to stay in local guest houses.

Winter sports - There is a large number of winter resorts all around the Bulgarian mountains. Some of the most popular are BanskoPamporovo,Borovets and Chepelare

Enjoy the beach - the Bulgarian seaside is full of enchanting resorts mixing the modern hotels and wild night life with ancient sights and traditional culture. Famous resorts include AlbenaGolden Sands, Nessebar, PrimorskoSveti VlasSozopol, and of course Sunny Beach.

Enjoy the nightlife - Bulgaria has a wide variety of entertainments to offer to any generation and that can satisfy any taste. However, one of the things the country is most famous of is its nightlife. A mix of oriental passion, European vision and unique Bulgarian seasoning that can be found throughout all the summer beach resorts at the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, the mountain resorts, and almost any city and university town including SofiaPlovdivVarnaBurgasHaskovoVeliko TarnovoBlagoevgrad, and many others.

Buy

Money

The Bulgarian unit of currency is the lev (лев, plural: leva), denoted by the symbol "лв" (ISO code: BGN). It is divided into one hundred stotinki. The lev is pegged to the euro at 1.95583 leva for €1.

Shopkeepers and other businesses in Bulgaria will usually not accept foreign money, although many will accept the euro. Bulgaria remains a largely cash economy in the rural areas; but in major cities, credit cards are generally accepted.

In most cities there are many money exchange offices which are marked with signs that say "CHANGE". Most are legitimate, but some may rip you off. For example, they advertise a very competitive rate on the outside, but on the inside, there is a tiny sign with the "official" rates, and these are much worse – so always make sure to ask how many leva you will get for your money before you actually hand it over, and calculate yourselves (e.g., using your mobile phone) how much money you would expect to get. If you now refuse the transaction because the rate suddenly changed, they will make all kinds of unjustified assertions (e.g., "I already entered it into the computer, it cannot be stopped"), but you if threaten to call the police immediately while raising your voice so that other tourists look your way, they usually will let go immediately.

It is much safer to exchange your money at a bank. Banks apply little or no commissions, and generally offer good rates, although they are slightly worse than at a (non-criminal) change bureau. Higher commissions may be applied to traveller's cheques. Old, dirty or very worn bank notes may be refused. Never exchange money out on the street. Beware of people on the street who offer high rates of exchange or who may ask you to make some change for them.

Over the past years the ATM network in Bulgaria has grown considerably, making it relatively easy to obtain cash from the numerous ATMs in Sofia, and in all other major cities and resorts. The national credit/debit card circuit BORICA [14], to which all ATMs in the country are hooked up, accepts VISA/Plus, Visa Electron, MasterCard/Cirrus, Maestro, American Express, Diners Club, and a number of other cards.

Prices

Prices in Bulgaria for some items are around half that of Western Europe, and good bargains are to be had on shoes and leather goods as well as other clothing. Note that clothes from famous international brands, perfumes, electronic equipment, etc. often are more expensive than in other parts of Europe.

Supermarkets

In Sofia and a few major cities you can find branches of international hypermarket chains like Kaufland, Hit, Billa, Metro, and other. There are also many local supermaket chains like Fantastiko, Familia, and Piccadilly. All Bulgarian supermarkets sell products of European quality.

Eat

Bulgarian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of Southeastern Europe. It has some Turkish and Greek influences, but it has some unique elements. The relatively warm climate and diverse geography produce excellent growth conditions for a variety of vegetables, bean cultures, herbs and fruits. Bulgarian cuisine is particularly diverse.

Famous for its rich salads required at every meal, Bulgarian cuisine is also noted for the diversity and quality of dairy products and the variety of wines and local alcoholic drinks. Bulgarian cuisine features also a diversity of traditional hot and cold soups, and numerous main dishes featuring a myriad of local grown vegetables. The meat appetizers that are typically served after the main dish are not to be missed out on. Bulgaria is also famous for the abundance of pastries in its cuisine.

A traditional Bulgarian meal starts with a salad of choice and some strong alcoholic beverage. The Bulgarian likes to drink wine or beer with its main dish continuing with the chosen drink by the end of the meal. This is why in most restaurants a salad is considered to be the best combination for strong alcoholic drinks.

In recent years, restaurants serving international cuisine have also made a presence in the country, offering various options such as Chinese, French, Italian, and international contemporary.

It is also worth noting that because of Bulgaria's beneficial geographical location and the slow technological progress in the agricultural sector of the economy the plant products used in the typical Bulgarian kitchen are all organic.

Most common foods

Most Bulgarian dishes are oven baked, steamed, or in the form of stew. Deep-frying is not very typical, but grilling - especially different kinds of meats - is very common. Turkish-influenced dishes do exist in Bulgarian cuisine with most common being moussaka, gyuvetch, and baklava. Pork meat is the most common meat in the Bulgarian cuisine. Fish and chicken are widely eaten, while beef is less common.

Yogurt (Kiselo mlyako) is very popular. It is mixed with water (drink called ayryan or airian) and it is added to main dishes (especially liver based or with minced meat). White cheese (brine) is a very popular ingredient in the Bulgarian cuisine too. Salads are often topped it it and it is often added to soups and main dishes.

  • Banitsa (also diminutival called banichka) is a traditional Bulgarian food prepared by layering filo pastry with various ingredients. Cheese is the most popular one, but there are also spinach, potatoes, minced meat or kraut (in the winter season). Usually people eat it for breakfast but it goes at any time of the day.
  • In the the bakeries there are also various flour based cakes like kozunak (sweet bread, Easter cake with raisins), kifla (rolls with chocolate or marmelade) and some salty variations with white or yellow cheese.
  • Tarator is a cold soup made of yogurt and cucumber (dill, garlic, walnuts and sunflower oil are sometimes added) and is popular in the summer season.
  • Shkembe chorba (tripe soup) is widely believed to be a hangover remedy. There are a few 24/7 places in Sofia where young people go early in the morning after a party, to have a Shkembe.
  • Shopska salad is a traditional Bulgarian cold salad popular throughout the Balkans and Central Europe. Its name comes from the people born of Sofian descent called "shopi". It is made from tomatoes, cucumbers, onion/scallions, raw or roasted peppers, white brine cheese and parsley.
  • Snezhanka salad or Snow White salad is made from yogurt and cucumbers. Snezhanka (Snow White) salad derives its name from the fairy tale character Snow White but the only reason for the name is the predominantly white color of the salad.
  • Trushia is served predominantly in the winter season - pickled vegetables. It is a traditional appetizer (meze) to go with the alkoholi drink rakia. It is often served in restaurants or it can be bought prepared from supermarkets. There are different recipes made with garlic, chili peppers, celery, cauliflower, carrots, cabbage and other vegetables, and dried aromatic herbs pickled in vinegar, salt, and different spice mixtures, which usually include whole black peppercorns, ginger, etc.
  • Kyopolou salad is a popular Bulgarian and Turkish relish made principally from roasted eggplants and garlic. Bell peppers, tomatoes, parsley are added.
  • Green Salad, very popular in the spring season and Easter, is made of lettuce, radish, cucumber. Boiled eggs are added on Easter. Sometimes it is served topped with yogurt.
  • Lyutenitsa (Ljutenica or Lutenica) is a vegetable relish. The ingredients include tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, onion, garlic or black pepper. It comes in many varieties. Lyutenitsa comes in a jar and is often used as a spread on toast and breads. It is also popularly eaten with many meats, meatballs and kebapcheta.
  • Kebapche (plural Kebapcheta) is grilled minced meat with spices (black peopper or cumin). The meat is shaped into an elongated cylindrical form, similar to a hot dog. Typically, a mix of pork and beef is used. Kebapche is a grilled food. It is never fried or baked.
  • Kyufte (also Kiufte, plural Kiufteta) is minced meat, with traditional spices, shaped as a flattened ball.
  • Sarma is a dish of grape or cabbage leaves rolled around a filling usually based on minced meat.
  • Musaka (Moussaka) is potato-based dish with pork mince, and the top layer is usually yogurt mixed with raw eggs.
  • Yogurt is popular dessert served with jam, dried or fresh fruits or honey. In the Sofia area it is often called Vezuvii (Vesuvius) or given other "marketing" names in the restaurant menus.
  • Baklava is very popular dessert but it is rarely served in the restaurants in Sofia. It can be found in boxes in the supermarkets.
  • Garash cake is commonly found in patisseries and restaurants. It is made of ground walnut kernels, sugar and topped with chocolate icing.

Vegetarian

There are a number of traditionally vegetarian dishes in Bulgarian cuisine including salads, soups, and some main dishes.

Salads - main ingredients in Bulgarian salads are tomatoes, cucumbers and white cheese. The most popular Bulgarian salad is Shopska salad, which is a mix of tomatoes, cucumbers, onion, raw or roasted peppers (preferably roasted), white cheese and is typically seasoned with parsley. The dressing for Shopska salad is salt, sunflower oil and wine vinegar.

Soups - Traditional Bulgarian vegetarian soups include: Bob Chorba (боб чорба) which is a minty bean soup, Leshta Chorba (Леща чорба) which is minty lentil soup and Tarator (Таратор) - a cold yoghurt and cucumber soup.

Main dishes - there is a wide variety of boiled, fried, breaded, or roasted vegetarian dishes.

  • Panagyurski style eggs (Яйца по панагюрски) - Boiled open eggs served in yoghurt and white cheese with red pepper and garlic seasoning
  • Mish-mash - fried mixed eggs with peppers (and onions) seasoned with fresh spices
  • Byurek pepper (Чушка бюрек) - baked pepper stuffed with seasoned eggs and white cheese mix, breaded and fried
  • Vegetarian sarmi (посни сърми) - rolls of either vine leafs or pickled cabbage leafs filled with seasoned rice and served with yoghurt

Traditional milk products

There are only two native kinds of cheese: the yellow-colored Kashkaval (Кашкавал) - more or less akin to the Dutch Gouda - and the more popular white Sirene (Сирене) - a kind of Feta cheese, similar to Greek Feta in taste but more sour. Originally made from sheep milk, it is available from cow or goat milk, or mixed.

A pride of the Bulgarian people, yoghurt has Bulgaria for its motherland. The native Bulgarian original yoghurt (kiselo mlyako) contains Lactobacilicus Bulgaricus, a bacterium which serves as the basis for active culture "plain" yoghurt in other countries. Normally made from cow or sheep milk, it can also be prepared from buffalo milk, with a remarkably stronger taste.

Being a staple, and quite favourite around the country, Bulgarian yoghurt also is an ingredient to many dishes, the most famous one being the cold soup Tarator and the drink Ayran. Yoghurt is also a main ingredient of a white sauce used in baking.

There are a lot of dishes served with yoghurt on the side since Bulgaria is the homeland of the product.

Traditional meat appetizers

There is a large number of traditional meat appetizers from all kinds of meat in Bulgarian cuisine. The most widely consumed, however, have been pork. Traditional meat appetizers are made from either the meat of the animal or from its intestines, but some of the delicacies include both. Other ingredients include leek, garlic, sometimes rice and a wide variety of herbs and spices such as savoury, thyme, parsley, cumin, dill, black pepper, red pepper, and others.

Cooked traditional meat appetizers include fried liver ( typically chicken, pork or lamb), roasted lamb intestines in herbs and spices, breaded veal tongue or veal tongue with mushrooms in butter, and veal stomach in butter or with mushrooms and cheese. Other popular cooked meat appetizers are sazdarma (саздърма) and bahur. Sazdarma is made of chopped meat and usually is seasoned with Daphne leafs and black pepper and can be from veal, lamb or mutton, while bahur is made of chopped pork meat and liver, with added rice and seasoned with allspice, savoury and black pepper. Although, some may think that those appetizers do not sound attractive at all, many of them fin out that they are a jewel once they have tried them.

Smoked and/or dried meat appetizers can be generally divided into two types: pastramis and salamis.

Some of the most popular pastrami-type appetizers are the pork Elena fillet (a salted air-dried fillet covered in savoury, thyme and other herbs) and Trakiya fillet (again, salted and air-dried fillet which is more juicy than Elena fillet and is covered in red pepper). There is also a wide variety of conventional pastramis (air-dried and then smoked and steamed) made from pork, veal, mutton, lamb and turkey. Pastrami in Bulgaria is transcribed as пастърма (pastarma). Another popular fillet appetizer is air-dried mackerel (in Bulgarian veyana skumriya (веяна скумрия) and it can be found in restaurant all around the seaside.

Salami-like appetizers are mostly made of pork and are only air-dried. The most popular are lukanka (made of minced pork with black pepper and cumin), ambaritsa (made of minced meat with red pepper, black pepper and garlic), babek (chopped meat and belly with red pepper, black pepper and either dill or savoury), and starets (chopped meat and belly with black pepper, cumin, allspice and rarely leek or garlic).

Bulgarians have a long tradition of making meat appetizers and many of them vary in recipe across the country. Much of them can be found in different varieties in restaurants and food stores. Most of the most popular appetizers have regional recipes that give the distinct flavour of the area.

Popular local dishes with meat

The most preferred Bulgarian salad is the shopska salad. However, there is another traditional salad that includes the ingredients of the shopska salad and adds it own distinct touch. The ovcharska salad is a mix of tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, onion, parsley and white cheese combined with mushrooms, boiled eggs, yellow cheese and most significantly - ham. The dressing again is salt, sunflower oil and wine vinegar.

As a main course you can have:

  • Bulgarian moussaka - a rich oven-baked dish of among other ingredients: potatoes, minced meat and white sauce of eggs and yoghurt served traditionally with chilled yoghurt;
  • Gyuvetch - typical ingredients include chopped potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, peas and some meat done in a clay pot called gyuvetch (from where the name of the dish comes
  • Sarmi - rolls of vine or pickled cabbage leaves with rise and meat
  • Drob sarma - a dish of lamb liver, belly and kidneys with rice covered white sauce and baked, served with yoghurt
  • Kavarma - fried meat with tomatoes, onions and peppers
  • Kapama - rolls of pickled cabbage leafs filled with four types of meat and at least one type of sausages in tomatoes and onions baked in a gyuvetch

Fast food

In Bulgaria there are traditional bakeries that prepare different kinds of pastry products. Banitsa and mekitsa are the favorite salty and sweet (respectively) pastries among others like tutmanik, milinka and kifla. Also, a traditional fast food option in Bulgaria is the grilled foods, such as kebabche and kufte (made of minced meat), karnache (a variety of sausage) and shishche (a king of shish-kebab made with chicken or pork meat).

Pizza, dyuner (döner kebab), sandwiches and toasts, or hamburgers are also very easily found on the streets of Bulgaria. There are also many local and international fast-food chains. While the local vary across regions, some of the internationally recognised McDonalds, KFC, Subway and Burger King are in every big city.

Drink

Non-alcoholic

There are more than six hundred mineral water springs around the country, so this is something you'd better taste and drink. However, tap water is not safe to drink in some regions.

Some of the most popular traditional non-alcoholic beverages in the country are ayran/ayryan (yoghurt, water and salt) and boza (sweet millet ale).

Another popular non-alcoholic drink is the fizzy drink "Etar" that has a distinct caramel flavour.

Wine

Grape growing and wine production have a long history in Bulgaria, dating back to the times of the Thracians. Wine is, together with beer and grape rakia, among the most popular alcoholic beverages in the country.

Some of the well known local wine varieties include:

  • the red dry wines Mavrud, Pamid, Gamza;
  • the red sweet wines Melnik, Dimyat, Misket, Malaga (made of raisins), Muskat, Pelin (with sour notes), Kadarka;
  • and the white wines Keratsuda (dry) and Pelin (sweet with sour notes).

Beer

Beer (bira: бира) is produced and consumed all around the country. You can find readily available excellent local varieties like Kamenitza (from Plovdiv), Zagorka (from Stara Zagora), Ariana (from Sofia), Pirinsko (from Blagoevgrad) and Shumensko (from Shumen), as well as Western European beers produced under license and produced in Bulgaria like Tuborg, Heineken, Stella Artois and Amstel.

Spirits

  • Rakia/rakiya (ракия) is the Bulgarian national alcoholic drink. It is served neat, usually at the beginning of a meal with salads. It's is strong (40% vol) clear brandy that is most commonly made from grapes or plums. However, there are as many varieties of the alcohol as there are fruit. Some of the best special selections are either made of apricots, or pears, or cherries, or peaches.

In many regions people still distil their rakia at home. Home-made rakia may include some special ingredients such as anise, honey, milk, natural gum and lozenges. Home-made rakia is then usually much stronger (around 50% to 60% vol).

  • Another quite popular drink is mastika (мастика). It is a strong (47 - 55% vol) anise-flavoured drink very similar to Greek ouzo. It is usually consumed with ice, with water in a 1:1 mixture.
  • Menta (мента) is a Bulgarian peppermint liqueur. It can be combined with mastika getting the Cloud cocktail (Oblak). Menta can also be combined with milk for a weak alcoholi, but tasty cocktail.

Sleep

Finding accommodation in Bulgaria is very easy, for any price. You can find everything - from hostels in Sofia and Plovdiv, very cheap boarding houses along the coast to inexpensive hotels in all cities and luxury hotels in large cities. There are many "mountain huts" or villas available for rent all around the mountains in the country. Overnight accommodations can also be acquired at about a dozen of the monasteries. There are also plenty of guest houses and villas. Bulgaria is famous for offering quality budget accommodation for rural and ecological tourism in charming small towns in its mountains as well as at the seaside. In some of the coastal villages, elderly ladies often approach tourists disembarking from coaches and trains, offering accommodation in boarding houses. These can often be excellent value for money (from as little as $5 a night) and can offer an authentic experience, however check these out before you agree on a stay.

Learn

The oldest Bulgarian university is the Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" that in 2008 celebrated 120 years from its foundation. It is considered to be the largest and most prestigious university center. There are many newer centres of education in SofiaPlovdivVarnaShumenVeliko TarnovoBlagoevgrad, etc.

For most subjects, programs are available in Bulgarian or English, depending on the university. Elementary and middle schools are supported by local authorities budget. As with most nations, teachers complain about small salaries. Literacy is nearly universal. Bulgarian people speak mostly English, German, French and Russian.

Some of the universities that offer education entirely in English are the American University in Bulgaria, the New Bulgarian University and the Technical University of Sofia. The last one offers also degrees in German language.

Secondary education entirely in English is offered by the American College in Sofia.

Stay safe

Bulgaria is generally a safe country, and people are quite friendly. You should however behave according to common sense when you are outside of the main tourist areas, i.e. don't show too openly that you have money, don't dress too much like a tourist, watch your things, don't walk around the suburbs (esp. those of Sofia) at night, avoid dark streets at night. Stepping in a hole is a much greater danger in Bulgaria than getting robbed.

Emergency phone numbers

The pan-European standard number 112 for all emergency calls is working everywhere in Bulgaria since September 2008. If, for some reason, you can not connect to 112, dial 166 for police, 150 for ambulance and 160 for the fire department.

Driving

Driving in Bulgaria can be fairly nerve-wracking, and Bulgarian roads have claimed 599 lives in 2012 and this is a decreasing figure compared with previous years. Aggressive driving habits, the lack of safe infrastructure, and a mixture of late model and old model cars on the country’s highways contribute to a high fatality rate for road accidents. Of significant notation that the Bulgarian road system is largely underdeveloped. There are few sections of limited-access divided highway. Some roads are in poor repair and full of potholes. The use of seat belts is mandatory in Bulgaria for all passengers, except pregnant women. In practice, these rules are often not followed. Take caution while crossing the streets, as generally, drivers are extremely impatient and will largely ignore your presence whilst crossing the road.

Crime

In general, organised crime is a serious issue throughout Bulgaria, however it usually does not affect tourists and ordinary people. Bulgaria is safer than most European countries with regard to violent crime, and the presence of such groups is slowly declining. Pickpocketing and scams (such as taxi scams or confidence tricks) are present on a wider scale, so be careful, especially in crowded places (such as train stations, urban public transport).

Car theft is probably the most serious problem that travellers can encounter. If you drive an expensive car, do not leave it in unguarded parking lots or on the streets - these locations are likely to attract more attention from the criminals. If, by any chance you do leave it in such a location, you need to be sure that the vehicle has a security system. Such an installment will prevent the vehicle from getting stolen.

Travelers should also be cautious about making credit card charges over the Internet to unfamiliar websites. As recent experiences has shown, offers for merchandise and services may be scam artists posing as legitimate businesses. A recent example involves Internet credit card payments to alleged tour operators via Bulgaria-based websites. In several cases, the corresponding businesses did not actually exist. As a general rule, do not purchase items of websites you are unfamiliar with.

Bulgaria is still largely a cash economy. Due to the potential for fraud and other criminal activity, credit cards should be used sparingly and with extreme caution. Skimming devices, surreptitiously attached to ATMs by criminals, are used to capture cards and PINs for later criminal use, including unauthorized charges or withdrawals, are very common in Bulgaria. If you are unsure which ATM to use, it's best to use your cash instead of a credit card.

Also, be careful with the cash you are dealing with. Remember that Bulgaria is one of the biggest bases for money forging of foreign currency, so pay attention to your euros, dollars and pounds.

On occasion, taxi drivers overcharge unwary travelers, particularly at Sofia Airport and the Central Train Station. Travelers are recommended to use taxis with meters and clearly marked rates displayed on a sticker on the passenger side of the windshield, as generally these Taxi's charge a normal amount, and the taxis with no meters charge for very unfair prices. One useful tip is to check the price for your trip from a trustful source beforehand, such as a friend or an official at station or tourist bureau. If by any chance you are trying to be lured into such rouge taxis, it is best to reject the offer, or just simply walk off.

Bulgaria has very harsh drug laws, and the penalties are perhaps far more severe than in any other country in Europe.

Do not exchange currency on the street! It is a common scam to offer you fake money as exchange in tourist areas such as stations.

Animals

Stray dogs are common all over Bulgaria. While most are friendly and are more scared of you than you are scared of them, they have been responsible for a number of accidents, so do keep on guard. There is rabies in Bulgaria, so any animal bites should receive immediate medical attention.

Wild bears and wolves can sometimes be seen in woods, so be careful.

Corruption

Corruption exists in Bulgaria as in many other European countries. For example, some policemen or officials may request you a bribe for certain action. If this happens, decline the proposal and ask for the name & ID of the individual. Corruption in customs was also once a problem, but has dropped drastically since the country's EU entry.

The government has fiercely fought the corruption with a huge success. Should you appear in a situation to which you are asked to bribe, or you feel that you are being exploited, you can either fill out an online query with the police here http://nocorr.mvr.bg/, or call 02 982 22 22 to report corruption.

Begging

Unfortunately begging and random people trying to sell you stuff is quite common in Bulgaria. In the holiday resorts both in the mountains and on the coast there will be numerous people trying to sell you various things such as roses and pirate DVD's etc. Usually a firm no will get rid of them but sometimes they will persist and often ignoring it will not make them go away unless you make it absolutely clear you are not interested. Also be aware that in many cases these people can just wander into the hotel restaurants in the evening so expect to see them standing at your table at some point! In the ski resorts there are many people who sell "Traditional" Bulgarian bells. They know when tourists arrive and how long they are staying for and will pester you all week to buy a bell. If you make it clear at the start of the week that you do not want a bell they will usually leave you alone (for a few days at least) but if you do not say no, or even say maybe they will tag you with a cheap plastic bell to force you to buy one later in the week. The bell men will suddenly become your friend for the week as they try to get you to buy a bell, but of course if you want to buy a bell make sure you haggle! And if you really don't want to buy a bell, by the end of the week your bell man will demand his cheap plastic bell back and won't be very happy! Don't feel bad about not buying a bell as they often charge extortionate prices unless you really haggle. If you do buy a bell however, you will find that the bell men will be genuinely friendly and chatty people and really aren't all as bad as they seem!

Stay healthy

As a generally rich country in Europe, it's best to say that health standards are developed. However, there are potential health risks, even though the government has fought the high chances of such things with a huge success. It best to stay that the greatest risk that a traveller can encounter is air pollution. People with breathing difficulties, such as asthma are at a greater risk.

Health Risks

Pollution is no better or worse than in any other European city. Health risks are the same as those in other parts of Europe, so be careful of what you eat, meaning that if you purchase fruits and vegetables, wash them prior to eating. If you are inclined to purchase food from a stand that sells fast food containing meat, know that you are taking on a health risk to yourself, because there are no health codes in those establishments.

If you are at the Black Sea, mind the strong sun at the beach, especially in July and August. Wear sunscreen and do not leave the umbrella in the first one or two days. Do not drink hard alcohol at the beach, it could give you a heart attack.

Smoking

Smoking is the national pastime, and evading the fumes of cigarettes is even more difficult than evading exhaust fumes in the streets. Generally, during the Summer, most people generally sit outside, which makes matters less worse. As this is a seasonally-changing obstacle, it's best to stay on guard. Since 2012, smoking is prohibited in public places, including bars and restaurants, but restrictions are rarely followed.

Eating and drinking

Most food is quite safe to eat. The products used in cooking are usually domestic and organic. Of course, try to avoid eating at places that are obviously not clean.

Tap water in Bulgaria varies greatly in quality, taste and drinking recommendations. While it is of very good quality and safe to drink in the mountain regions, it is best to avoid drinking water in North Bulgaria and in the regions near the seaside. The mountain regions in Bulgaria have natural springs that are quite abundant and many of villages have one or more mineral water springs.

Hospitals

Conditions in Bulgarian hospitals may vary - from the very clean and sparkling, with all the latest technological utilities, to the downright drab, dark and cold. There are some new hospitals, and some very old, with old technology. Medical personnel is very good at their job.

Citizens of the European Union are covered by Bulgaria's National Healthcare System as long as they carry a Eurocard (or European Health Insurance Card), obtainable from their own national healthcare authority.

Dental procedures in private clinics in Bulgaria are of excellent quality. Many people from Western Europe come to Bulgaria to have their teeth done for the quarter of the price they pay in their home countries.

Respect

Bulgarians are incredibly friendly and very interested in talking to foreigners. Bulgarians tend to be far more open than some other Eastern Europeans and engaging in dialogue with these people is much advised and worthwhile. In smaller towns, especially in the Rhodopes, people may invite you for lunch or even to sleep over. Often it is a pleasant gesture to give someone a "Dobar Den" when walking past a quiet stall or past a person. Kak sté (how's it going) will usually suffice for the younger generation.

As a rule of thumb for most countries worldwide, you should avoid topics involving politics and foreign relations, and on some occasions football (soccer) as well. If you are pulled in to such a conversation, try to stay neutral. Remember that your own knowledge of local situations is unlikely to be as good as a Bulgarian's!

For certain people, Macedonia is a sensitive subject to talk about, but feel free to ask your questions, provided you do not discuss it with those more likely to take offense (i.e. nationalists and skinheads). Many Bulgarians feel that Macedonia belongs to Bulgaria, but unless you know the subject and the people you are talking to, just asking questions is the best option.

Most of the Bulgarian people do not feel anger or resentment towards Russians (unlike a number of people from other former Eastern Bloc countries), and Bulgarians tend to have a much better perception of Russians, however caution may sometimes be needed in discussing issues regarding Turkey. Likewise, discrimination against Turks and Roma people can be observed, but it's mostly because of certain nationalist groups, that are not much different than hate groups in central and western Europe.

Bulgarians don't really do chit chat, so trying to make conversation with someone at a till in a shop will probably result in odd looks (either from not understanding or not wanting to engage) or they will just ignore you. Likewise Bulgarians are quite impatient and will often honk their car horn at you if you walk in front of a car, especially in winter in the mountains as they try to keep a grip on the road.

Connect

Domestic Phones

Domestic telephone service is available in almost every population centre (no matter the size), via the PSTN or VoIP.

Mobile Phones

Mobile phones are widely spread in Bulgaria - many people have two or three mobile phones using the different carriers. There are three networks (M-tel, Globul and Vivacom), all using the GSM/3G/HDSPA standards and are soon to launch LTE (4G) on the territory of the country. M-tel is the oldest and largest carrier and as such it has almost full national coverage (97% of the surface of the country), with minor exceptions in the highest parts of the mountains. The other two, Globul and Vivacom, because they are not so heavily used, offer better mobile internet speeds.

Fares are average for the European Union (5-40 Eurocent per minute, 7 Eurocent/SMS). Both pre-paid cards and subscriptions are available, and special options for discounted international calls exist with some pricing plans. Prepaid cards need registration with a valid ID or passport.

Internet access

Internet access is widely available in Bulgaria, although about 60% of the population has regular access. Broadband internet is available through cable, ADSL, fiber optics, WiMax and LAN connections. You can also access internet with your mobile phone, via GPRS or 3G. Speeds are pretty fast in the capital - with prices being around 10 € for 20 Mbit/s, with local access about 40-100 Mbit/s. The speeds are increasing, home access for 10 Mbit/s being available at around €7.5 per month. Outside Sofia, speeds are significantly lower, fastest being around 7.5 € for 10 Mbit/s. Internet cafes are available in most towns and cities, and in some villages. Computers are usually not available in libraries, or in public places such as train stations, but free wireless access is often available in such public places and in gas stations. Many pubs and hotels will also have WiFi that is free of charge to use. In recent years, wireless access has been growing, especially in biggest cities, but is still rather limited. Paid wireless access is also available. Speeds in Bulgaria are surprisingly good! In fact Bulgaria is in top 10 of the countries with fastest wireless Internet speeds worldwide.

Photo: Stanislav Trifonov

1. She’ll keep you guessing.

We, Bulgarian women, are convinced that the key to a happy relationship is surprises and spontaneity. One day you might come home to find you hazel-eyed, brunette lady as a sparkling blonde; on a Saturday she’ll take you on a weekend escape to her selo in Kyustendil and next thing you know, she’ll be driving you across the border to Greece for some olives and baklava, only to prove that her baklava is waaay better. Good luck staying bored!

2. You’ll get fat from all the banitsa.

We LOVE to spoil our boyfriends. If you’re sick, we’ll nurse you to health (provided that you trust our superior self-medication skills enough). If you’re sad, we’ll be your shrink and listen patiently. Our moms teach us the classic “a man’s love goes through his stomach,” so prepare for opulent dinners of banitsa, skara, guyvetch, musaka, keks and anything else you ever liked or didn’t know you liked yet. Better throw your pants out the window because you’re going up a size, mister!

3. The wedding would be a circus.

Did you ever see My Big Fat Greek Wedding? Well, that absolutely applies to us, Bulgarians, too. God forbid you ever married your Bulgarian girlfriend, because you’ll be partying for 3 days straight with your new brothers and sisters-in-law, cousins, aunts, uncles and nephews. You’ll be dancing nights away, followed by photographers and an accordion band, and the whole thing will cost you less than $5,000 because the BGN is at a rate begging to be bought.

4. You’ll inherit her crazy family.

Caution: if you’re an only child you should be especially weary about getting serious with your Bulgarian girlfriend! Were you to become engaged to her, you’re also making a commitment to her parents, siblings and cousins, so you’ll never have a minute alone between pounding shots of rakiya with her grandpa, being fed shkembe by her great aunt and hunting with her dad at the woods of Golyam Varbovnik.

5. She’s mysterious.

You’ll often look at your girl and wonder what thoughts whirl behind those pretty green eyes. Dark and enchanting, Bulgarian women are a mix of Russian, Turkish, Greek, Macedonian and other cultures around, intertwined by a common history, and our exotic features allow us to keep our emotions to ourselves if we choose to, while you admire our flawless exterior.

6. Her milkshakes bring all the boys to the yard.

As Zoolander would put it: “we’re really really really good-looking!” Fact. You’ll have some fierce competition so you better bring on your A game. I’m talking flowers and bonboni, compliments and little surprise gifts, to make you stand out from the rest of the glarusi.

7. You’ll have to work out.

We, Bulgarian women, pay a tremendous amount of attention to our figures, because this is how our mothers raised us. (To this day I rarely eat bread, thanks mom!) Whether we go jogging at the Borisova Gradina, hike in Vitosha or hit the gym, we’re always in an envy-worthy shape, so you better keep up, boy!

8. You’ll have to earn her dad’s respect at the table.

Ok, so you were the lucky one to sweep her off her feet among the other admirers, so what? I hate to break it to you, but you haven’t won the girl over until you’ve “seduced΅ her father. (Strictly metaphorically speaking, do not mention any weird things like that to him!) You have to keep up with her dad’s appetite for eating and drinking, have to demonstrate how respectful you are and state your intentions clearly. All in all, it’s kind of like an Ivy League college application — hard but worth it.

9. You’ll go bankrupt on roses.

Ah, but who can put a price tag on love, right? The Bulgarian maslodayna rose is our national pride and most beautiful flower in the entire country. Stock up on fresh roses and balms to surprise her with, with no occasion whatsoever.

10. She’ll never ask for a bandaid.

Don’t expect your Bulgarian woman to come crying to you whenever faced with difficulties. Her strong and independent persona will try anything possible to resolve it alone, and would never ask to be rescued by anyone. She’s the Snow White who had the 7 dwarves straightening out her posh apartment while she was kicking the evil queen’s ass, no prince bullsh*t.

11. You’ll break an ankle dancing horo.

You MUST know how to dance. If you don’t, I suggest you take a lesson or two ASAP, because you’ll need it! Between late night mehana gatherings and all-day Trifon Zarezan celebrations, there are more occasions to celebrate than days of the year, so get your Dunavsko Horo straight. More like this: How to piss off Bulgarian women

Bulgaria - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture

Juliana Tzvetkova

Bulgaria, situated in southeastern Europe on the Black Sea, is one of Europe’s best-hidden secrets. A haven for nature and history buffs, this beautiful sunny country welcomes the traveler with bread and salt, a red rose, and ? wooden vessel full of sparkling wine. These three emblems of ancient treasures, rose oil, and natural beauty symbolize its distinctive culture. This youngest member of the European Union has been riding a roller-coaster of radical transformation since emerging from the Eastern Bloc and becoming a market economy twenty years ago, changing dramatically in many ways and yet preserving its own particular charm and slow-paced way of life. Invasions and waves of migration, dating back to neolithic and classical times, have contributed to a unique cultural mosaic. The country boasts the oldest hoard of gold treasure in the world. The seventh-century Bulgarian empire dominated the Balkans and was a powerhouse of Slavonic culture. Later, Ottoman conquest and Soviet influence left their mark on the national psyche. Culture Smart! Bulgaria provides a key to understanding the Bulgarian people. It outlines their long and complex history, shows you what everyday life is like there today, and offers advice on what to expect and how to behave in different circumstances. This is a small country of proud and persevering people. More than the golden sands of the “Bulgarian Riviera,” the vast thickly forested expanses of the Rhodopes or the Rila and Pirin ranges with their snow-capped peaks and emerald-green lakes, the music and dances and the warmth and cordiality of the Bulgarians will conquer your heart and bring you back time and again.

DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Bulgaria

DK

The lavishly illustrated DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Bulgaria is all you need to visit this surprisingly undiscovered country rich in natural resources, history and culture. Soak up the many flavors of Bulgaria region by region, from Bulgaria's capital, Sofia, to the ancient countryside villages of Koprivshtitsa and Veliko Turnovo. Sights, beaches, markets and festivals are listed town by town.

DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Bulgaria includes 3-D cutaway illustrations, floor plans, and reconstructions of must-see sights, plus full-color city maps enable you to explore the capital and regions in depth. Walks, scenic routes, and thematic tours show you how to make the most of the country's spectacular mountain ranges and dramatic Black Sea coastline. Special features explain the history, cultural heritage, traditional festivals and local cuisine to ensure you won't miss a thing.

With hundreds of full-color photographs, hand-drawn illustrations and custom maps that brighten every page, DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Bulgaria shows you this country as no one else can.

Bulgaria

Frank Fox

Instructed in the autumn of 1912 to join the Bulgarian army, then mobilising for war against Turkey, as war correspondent for the London Morning Post, I made my preparations with the thought uppermost that I was going to a cut-throat country where massacre was the national sport and human life was regarded with no sentimental degree of respect. The Bulgarians, a generation ago, had been paraded before the eyes of the British people by the fiery eloquence of Mr. Gladstone as a deeply suffering people, wretched victims of Turkish atrocities.

Lonely Planet Romania & Bulgaria (Travel Guide)

Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet: The world's leading travel guide publisher

Lonely Planet Romania & Bulgaria is your passport to all the most relevant and up-to-date advice on what to see, what to skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. Absorb the vibrant landscape by hiking the Carpathians, relax on Bulgaria's Black Sea coast, or experience the kaleidoscope of colours in the Bucovina Monasteries; all with your trusted travel companion. Get to the heart of Romania and Bulgaria and begin your journey now!

Inside Lonely Planet Romania & Bulgaria Travel Guide:

Colour maps and images throughout Highlights and itineraries show you the simplest way to tailor your trip to your own personal needs and interests Insider tips save you time and money and help you get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots Essential info at your fingertips - including hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, and prices Honest reviews for all budgets - including eating, sleeping, sight-seeing, going out, shopping, and hidden gems that most guidebooks miss Cultural insights give you a richer and more rewarding travel experience - including folk culture, myths, history, visual arts, crafts, music, politics, landscapes, wildlife, cuisine, and wine Over 70 local maps Useful features - including Top Experiences, Month-by-Month (annual festival calendar), and Outdoor Activities Coverage of Sofia, Bucharest, Wallachia, the Black Sea Coast, Moldavia, Transylvania, Maramures, Crisana, Banat, PlovdivVeliko Tarnovo, the Danube, Kazanlak, Sibiu, the Danube Delta, and more

The Perfect Choice: Lonely Planet Romania & Bulgaria, our most comprehensive guide to Romania and Bulgaria, is perfect for those planning to both explore the top sights and take the road less travelled.

Looking for more extensive coverage? Check out Lonely Planet's Eastern Europe guide for a comprehensive look at all the region has to offer.

Authors: Written and researched by Lonely Planet, Mark Baker, Chris Deliso, Richard Waters, and Richard Watkins.

About Lonely Planet: Started in 1973, Lonely Planet has become the world's leading travel guide publisher with guidebooks to every destination on the planet, as well as an award-winning website, a suite of mobile and digital travel products, and a dedicated traveller community. Lonely Planet's mission is to enable curious travellers to experience the world and to truly get to the heart of the places they find themselves in.

TripAdvisor Travelers' Choice Awards 2012 and 2013 winner in Favorite Travel Guide category

'Lonely Planet guides are, quite simply, like no other.' - New York Times

'Lonely Planet. It's on everyone's bookshelves; it's in every traveller's hands. It's on mobile phones. It's on the Internet. It's everywhere, and it's telling entire generations of people how to travel the world.' - Fairfax Media (Australia)

Bulgaria (Bradt Travel Guides Bulgaria)

Annie Kay

Fully updated for this second edition, Annie Kay's Bulgaria combines detailed background information with tips on the best hotels and mehanas. Bulgaria has a history and culture as rich and diverse as its landscape. From the gold-domed churches of Sofia to the picturesque National Revival houses of Koprivshtitsa, visitors will find an eclectic mix of traditions and architecture. Add to this remote mountain monasteries, medieval fortresses and ancient rock formations, and you'll see that there are opportunities to delve into this country's past at every turn. Whether hiking through the Rila Mountains in search of a brown bear or simply strolling around Nesebur's harbour, be sure to take this guide with you.

Looking at Bulgaria (Looking at Europe)

Bronja Prazdny

There is much more to know about Bulgaria. Look inside to discover... What national hero looked like a lion? Why 300,000 people left Bulgaria in one year? Which man led Bulgaria for 35 years in the postwar era? How to identify counterfeit Bulgarian money. Which board game can make someone a national hero? Find the answers to these questions (and more) inside this book!

FIG BE PULLED: Cyrillic made accessible for travellers to Bulgaria

Jeanne Maclay-Mayers

The Bulgarian language is like Bulgarian beer: it is good. And yet it comes bottled in Cyrillic letters. This book is your bottle-opener. It uses visual cues to help you remember what the 30 letters sound like. And then it gets you reading longer and longer words using these letters. By the end of the book you will be reading names such as: ● Национална библиотека „Свети Свети Кирил и Методий“, София● Факултет по дентална медицина, Медицински Университет – Варна.This sets you up for success when you want to get serious about learning Bulgarian. The book is also a feast for the eyes, showcasing hundreds of beautiful photographs taken by many different travellers and locals. The best way to learn a language is to fall in love with a country, and the images in this book will make you do just that.

Bulgaria Map 739 (Maps/Country (Michelin)) 1:700K

Michelin

Renowned for over 100 years for their clear, accurate and easy-to-read mapping, Michelin country maps give travelers an overall picture of their route, with practical road and travel information; and city maps containing extensive street indexes orient them quickly so they can find their way to their destination.

Exercise a high degree of caution

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The purpose of this Travel Advice is to provide up-to-date information to enable you to make well-informed decisions.

Crime

Petty crime is less widespread in Sofia than in most Western European cities. Nevertheless, petty crimes (pickpocketing, mugging and purse snatching) do occur, particularly at the railway and bus stations, and at tourist sites and crowded areas. Be especially vigilant at tourist resorts along the Black Sea coast, such as Sunny Beach, the biggest sea resort in Bulgaria.

Vehicle theft occurs as well, particularly of these types: vehicles of prestige, four-wheel-drive vehicles and late-model European sedans. Be aware that you will have to pay customs duties for your stolen vehicle before you will be allowed to leave the country. Try to park in a guarded location, and always keep valuable belongings out of sight in cars.

Organized Crime

Organized criminal groups are active in casinos and nightclubs and are involved in prostitution. Although rare, violent crime occurs, which includes bombings and shootouts generally attributed to turf wars between rival gangs.

Demonstrations

Demonstrations, mainly to protest socio-economic conditions, occur and have the potential to suddenly turn violent. They can lead to significant disruptions to traffic and public transportation.

Daily anti-government demonstrations have been occurring since June 2013, particularly in Sofia's downtown, near Independence Square. There are calls for these protests to continue until the new government steps down.

Avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings, follow the advice of local authorities and monitor local media.

Road travel

Driving can be hazardous due to poor road conditions and a lack of traffic signs and lane markings. Do not drive after dark and be very cautious in winter. Animals on roads are common in rural areas, posing a risk.

Confronting aggressive drivers is not recommended, as they may be armed.

Carjackings occur, and criminals have been known to pose as traffic officers in order to stop vehicles. These criminal operate especially on the Black Sea coast or on the road to Greece and Macedonia near Dupnitsa and Kyustendil.

Public transportation

Use only licensed taxis with meters. Verify the tariffs on the taxi’s window before boarding. At the Sofia Airport, there is a booth within the arrivals terminal that coordinates taxis at a fair rate.

Rail services are generally poor by Western standards, and it is therefore preferable to travel by inter-city buses, which are frequent, comfortable and relatively fast.

Most cities and larger towns have public transportation systems. There are regular bus services between most major towns in the country.

Consult our Transportation Safety page in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

Spiked food and drinks

Never leave food or drinks unattended or in the care of strangers. Be wary of accepting snacks, beverages, gum or cigarettes from new acquaintances, as they may contain drugs that could put you at risk of sexual assault and robbery.

General safety information

Exercise a high degree of caution. Ensure that your personal belongings, passports and other travel documents are secure at all times. Valuables and important documents should be stored in a hotel safe. Avoid showing signs of affluence and carrying large sums of cash.

Emergency services

Dial 112 for emergency assistance.

Health

Related Travel Health Notices
Consult a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic preferably six weeks before you travel.
Vaccines

Routine Vaccines

Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.

Vaccines to Consider

You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.

Influenza

Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.

Measles

Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.
 

Rabies

Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).

Tick-borne encephalitis

Tick-borne encephalitis is a viral disease that can cause swelling of the brain. It is spread to humans by the bite of an infected tick. Vaccination should be considered for those who may be exposed to tick bites (e.g., those spending time outdoors in wooded areas) while travelling in regions with risk of tick-borne encephalitis.

Yellow Fever Vaccination

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
Risk
  • There is no risk of yellow fever in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
  • Proof of vaccination is not required to enter this country.
Recommendation
  • Vaccination is not recommended.
Food/Water

Food and Water-borne Diseases

Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.

In some areas in Eastern Europe, food and water can also carry diseases like hepatitis A. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in Eastern Europe. When in doubt, remember…boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!

Travellers' diarrhea
  • Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
  • Risk of developing travellers’ diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
  • The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.

Insects

Insects and Illness

In some areas in Eastern Europe, certain insects carry and spread diseases like Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis, and West Nile virus.

Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a viral disease that typically causes fever, bleeding under the skin, and pain. Risk is generally low for most travellers. It is spread to humans though contact with infected animal blood or bodily fluids, or from a tick bite. Protect yourself from tick bites and avoid animals. There is no vaccine available for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.


Malaria

Malaria

There is no risk of malaria in this country.


Animals

Animals and Illness

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, snakes, rodents, and bats. Certain infections found in Eastern Europe, like rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.


Person-to-Person

Person-to-Person Infections

Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are spread through blood and bodily fluids; practise safer sex.


Medical services and facilities

Medical services and facilities

Medical care is not up to Western standards. Private hospitals and clinics are generally well equipped. Physicians and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.

Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.

Canada and Bulgaria are signatories to the European Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons. This enables a Canadian imprisoned in Bulgaria to request a transfer to a Canadian prison to complete a sentence. The transfer requires the agreement of both Canadian and Bulgarian authorities.

Identification

Carry adequate identification at all times. Keep a photocopy of your passport in case of loss or seizure.

Illegal activities

Penalties for possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs are strict. Convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

Photography of military installations is prohibited.

Homosexuality

Homosexuality is not widely accepted in Bulgaria.

Driving laws

You can drive with a Canadian driver’s licence up to 90 days from your arrival in the country. An International Driving Permit is recommended for longer stays. Carry all related documents, such as ownership, registration and proof of Bulgarian car insurance.

A highway permit (“vignette”) is required to travel on Bulgarian roads. You can purchase this vignette at ports, border points, post offices and large gas stations.

The use of a cellular telephone while driving is prohibited, unless it is fitted with a hands-free device.

Penalties for drinking and driving are strict; the legal blood alcohol limit is 0.05 percent. Follow speed limits on all roads. Police conduct frequent checks.

Money

The currency is the Bulgarian lev (BGN).

The economy is primarily cash-based. U.S. dollars and euros are accepted. Automated banking machines (ABMs) are widely available and credit cards are widely accepted. Major hotels accept foreign-currency traveller’s cheques. The United Bulgarian Bank in Sofia can process money transfers from abroad.

When crossing one of the external border control points of the European Union (EU), you must make a declaration to customs upon entry or exit if you have at least €10,000 or the equivalent in other currencies. The sum can be in cash, cheques, money orders, traveller’s cheques or any other convertible assets. This does not apply if you are travelling within the EU or in transit to a non-EU country. For more information on the EU legislation and links to EU countries’ sites, visit the web page of the European Commission on cash controls

Climate

Bulgaria is located in an active seismic zone.

There is a risk of avalanches in mountainous regions due to the rapidly warming temperatures following a particularly harsh winter. Exercise caution, monitor local news and weather reports and follow the advice of local authorities.