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Somalia

Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال‎ aṣ-Ṣūmāl) is on the Horn of Africa, and is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the north-west, and Kenya on its south-west. This is a country with a troubled past. Civil war, military coups, border disputes and warlordism have been the general course of events here since government collapsed in 1991. Things improved in 2012 when the Al-Shabaab jihadist group was driven out of the cities and a permanent (rather than transitional) central government was formed for the first time since 1991.

Understand

History

The history of the Somali people dates back many centuries. The first time the word Somali was mentioned in a history book was 3500 years ago, when the queen of Egypt Hatshepsut sent a fleet of 5 large ships and a crew of 250 men to Somalia which the Egyptians called The Land of Punt. Punt means “the land of spices” from the aromatic plants that grow there. The Egyptians wanted to trade and they brought jewels and glass beads that they exchanged for gold, elephant tusks, myrrh, ostrich feathers, spices and different beads. Some of these items, especially the aromatic ones, were used by the Egyptians in their religious festivals and celebrations.

Between the 7th and 9th centuries, immigrant Muslim Arabs and Persians established trading posts along the Somali coast.

In the 14th century Ibn Battuta, the great Berber traveller, visited Mogadishu and wrote about the people, their food and clothing and how they ruled themselves. In his book he mentioned that the people in the city were very fat and everybody ate as much as they could. The Mogadishans wore very nice white clothes and turbans and their sultan was very powerful.

Somalia was an unknown country for European explorers until the Portuguese explorers reached the coastal cities of Somalia on their way to India. They called it Terra Incognita, which means an unknown land. These new discoveries encouraged many other European navigators to sail on the Somali coasts.

The colonial era

British, Italian and French imperialism all played an active role in the region in the 19th century. In 1884 at the European powers' conference in Berlin, Somalia was divided into five parts to dilute the homogeneity imposed by its language, religion, and race.

The colonial powers divided Somalia into British Somaliland in the north, Italian Somalia in the south, the French Somali coast in Djibouti, Ogaden in the west and the Northern Frontier District of Kenya (NFD). In the early 20th century a Somali resistance against these colonial powers started, led by Sayed Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, whom the British gave the nickname "Mad Mullah." He began his opposition after returning from Mecca and established his own army, which he called the Dervishes. He recruited from the local people and built his own headquarters in Taleex. In 1901 the fighting started between British and local Somali forces and it was the beginning of a long struggle that resulted in Somali independence.

After independence

In 1969, General Siad Barre seized power in a coup d'état, and the country was under a military government when the previous president was assassinated. The military government established large-scale public works programs and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate. In addition to a nationalization program of industry and land, the new regime's foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia's traditional and religious links with the Arab world, eventually joining the Arab League in 1974. Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and later partnership with the United States enabled it to build the largest army in Africa. However, this ended in a complete collapse in the 1980s when the Somali people were disillusioned with the government. The government was weakened further in the 1980s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished.

As a result, General Barre was ousted and a civil war started in 1991 since the apparent independence of Somaliland, and the Barre government's massacres against the people of Somaliland. Since then, life has grown tough for many Somalis, who began to leave the country in large numbers to settle in safer parts of the world.

There has been somewhat increased security, as Al Shabaab, the Islamist opposition to the current regime of President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, has been pushed out of major cities in the south of the country and reduced to guerrilla warfare. However, spectacular terrorist attacks still occur in Mogadishu and government troops have been accused of committing widespread rapes with impunity, so with the exception of de facto independent Somaliland, Somalia should still be considered a dangerous place and not appropriate for tourism.

Climate

Somalia is principally desert. Major climatic factors are a year-round hot climate, seasonal monsoon winds, and irregular rainfall with recurring droughts. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30°C to 40°C (85–105°F), except at higher elevations and along the east coast. Mean daily minimums usually vary from about 15°C to 30°C (60–85°F). The southwest monsoon, a sea breeze, makes the period from about May to October the mildest season at Mogadishu. The December-February period of the northeast monsoon is also relatively mild, although prevailing climatic conditions in Mogadishu are rarely pleasant. The "tangambili" periods that intervene between the two monsoons (October–November and March–May) are hot and humid.

Regions

Cities

  • Mogadishu - the capital, and generally considered the most lawless city in the world.
  • Hargeisa - the capital of Somaliland and, by Somalian standards, a fairly safe place.
  • Kismayo - a port city in the south of the country

Get in

Foreigners and overseas Somalis will need a visa. This can be arranged in three ways:

  1. The Somali embassy in your home country can easily arrange it for US$40-50.
  2. Visa on arrival: if you have the right documents, you can easily get a visa on arrival; the whole process takes about 40 minutes.
  3. The best and most secure way is to arrange your whole journey through a local luxury hotel, which will arrange everything from visa processing, picking you up from the airport, providing protection, sightseeing, and everything you need.

By plane

Plane travel may be problematic to and from Somalia, due to bombings of the airports by Ethiopian forces. However, air may be the safest means of travel to and from Somalia.

The most reliable way to get in seems to be with African Express, which has connections in Dubai, Nairobi, and other smaller Middle Eastern and East African ports of call. Tickets can be reserved in advance, but not purchased unless you are at their ticketing office - check back in to ensure you have a seat reserved if you will not be in the city you fly out of before your flight!

  • African Express is a Kenyan airline that flies to/from Berbera, Bossaso, Galkacyo and Mogadishu primarily from Nairobi and Dubai, but also less frequently from smaller locations such as Sharjah, Entebbe or Jeddah. Major routes use MD-82 jets, shorter hops may be on a DC-9 or 120-ER.
  • Jubba Airways is a Somali airline that operates from Mogadishu to/from: Dubai, Bossaso and Jeddah. Flights also may be available to/from: Galkayo, Hargeisa and Sharjah. They use a Soviet-made Ilyushin-18 aircraft. They are the only airline to/from Somalia that currently accepts online booking reservations, but confirm with them seven (7) days in advance before flying.
  • Daallo Airlines, the national carrier of Djibouti. 2-3 services per week from Djibouti also using an Ilyushin-18 aircraft.

Flights once again arrive at MIA International Airport, also known as Aden Abdulle International Airport, just a few kilometers southwest of the center of Mogadishu. The airport is located on the Indian Ocean beach, and the Turkish government has put up funds to renovate the airport and its security, control tower, and navigational systems. Passenger flights are operating.

There are 100 flights everyday to and from MIA airport in Mogadishu as of 2016.

By car

Don't travel to Somalia through driving by car. Though this may be possible if you wish to cross into Somaliland, borders are generally sealed, and always dangerous.

By bus

Armed robbery and killings are common on buses in Somalia including Somaliland. However, it is possible, and relatively safe (though relative is the key term) for you to take a series of buses and/or shared cars from Ethiopia into Somaliland.

From Jijiga in Ethiopia, ask for the bus to Wajaale. Once there, cross the border (have your Somaliland visa ready to go) and take a shared 4x4 car to Hargeisa.

Keep in mind that to leave via the same route, you will need a multiple-entry Ethiopian visa (- no longer true as Ethiopian visas can be obtained at the Ethiopian Trade Mission in Hargeisa). These are not issued at the airport and must be received in advance of your journey. Somaliland requires a visa as well (see the "Getting In" section on its page for more details).

From Djibouti, 4x4s leave from Avenue 26 in Djibouti City every afternoon at around 5pm and drive across the desert through the night to reach Hargeisa around 8am the next day.

As noted above, the borders around the rest of the former Somalia are closed and extremely dangerous.

By boat

There are ports in Mogadishu , Berbera, Kismaayo, and Bosaso. The waters outside of Somalia, especially the Gulf of Aden, are unsafe due to pirates; extreme caution is advised.

Get around

Somalia was without an effective government for 17 years; as one can imagine this has had a negative effect on the roads and transit. There are two different modes of public transportation that you can use in Somalia: buses and taxis. The only rule of the road that seems to still be in force is that Somalis generally drive on the right or centre.

See

Liido Beach and Gezira Beach near Mogadishu are very beautiful. Families usually go on weekends. Women must swim fully clothed, but recent resort investors provide a special place for couples, as Somalia is a Muslim country, and does not permit women to show much of their bodies or to mingle with men. Although improvements have been made recently, caution is advise.

It is not clear as what the situation is like currently. In other circumstances, the beach would make for an ideal destination; however, the general threat of banditry and piracy along the coast make this, along with every other option in the country, risky, and caution is usually advised.

Do

In Mogadishu, security guards must accompany foreigners. Do not go alone if you are a foreign tourist.

  • Old Shanghai City
  • Liido Beach, Mogadishu
  • Mogadishu Governor's House
  • Mogadishu Fish Market
  • Gezira Beach
  • Mogadishu Fruit Market
  • Gezira Livestock Market
  • Bakara Market
  • Black Hawk down crash site
  • Liido Marine Life Academy

Talk

Somali is the official language in Somalia. However, Arabic is spoken by many and represents a secondary language. As the Somalis are almost exclusively Sunni Muslims, Somali has borrowed much religious terminology from Arabic, although there are also Persian or Arabic loan words for everyday objects (e.g. Somali albab-ka (the door), from the Arabic الباب al baab). While the southern part of the country was a former protectorate and colony of Italy, it is unclear just how much Italian is still spoken. Many Somalis speak English to communicate with the people who generally handle all of the menial jobs in their country. If you can learn a few words of Somali, your hosts and any other locals that you may meet will be very impressed and appreciative.

Buy

Money

The currency used in Somalia (except Somaliland) is the Somali shilling (shilin), denoted by the symbol "Sh.So." r in Arabic, شلن‎‎. The ISO currency code is (rather appropriately?) SOS. Only the SOS1000 note is used, and doesn't go far... a glass of (unpotable) water will cost SOS1000. Exchange rates are extremely volatile and in December 2014, the free market rate would you ten or twenty times more than the official exchange for hard currency which is preferred for larger transactions. Much more useful are goods with which you could barter.

Shopping

The Bakaara Market (Somali: Suuqa Bakaaraha) is a Mogadishu open market and the largest in Somalia. Bakaara Market is in the heart of Mogadishu. The market was created in late 1972 during the reign of Siad Barre. Proprietors sold and still sell daily essentials (including staples such as maize, sorghum, beans, peanuts, sesame, wheat and rice), petrol and medicine. Despite a new Coalition government taking control, Somali markets continue to operate largely in the absence of regulations. A wide array of weaponry is also sold, with guns sometimes being the only thing for sale at some markets. Currently, 80% of Somali males own a weapon. Be very cautious, as customers will often test their new weapons by firing into the air. In the markets, an automatic rifle is usually available for purchase for around SOS1,000,000 or USD30. even if you think it is macho, don't buy one. You are a lot more likely to use a weapon if you have it, and this would be seen as very bad in the eyes of the law, and could lead to your execution.

There are many things to buy here but be wary of cheap pearls as they may not be real. There are many good tailors in Somalia and it is a good place to have clothes made to measure and copied.

Eat

Somali meals are meat driven, vegetarianism is relatively rare. Goat, beef, lamb and sometimes chicken is fried in ghee, or grilled or broiled. It is spiced with turmeric, coriander, cumin and curry and eaten with basmati rice for lunch, dinner and sometimes breakfast.

Vegetables appear to largely be side dishes, and often are woven into a meat dish, such as combining potatoes, carrots and peas with meat and making a stew. Green peppers, spinach and garlic were also noted as the types of vegetables most commonly eaten. Bananas, dates, apples, oranges, pears and grapes are among some of the more popular fruits (a raw, sliced banana is often eaten with rice). But in Somalia, Somalis had a much larger selection of fruits - like mango and guava - from which they would make fresh juice. Somali stores, therefore, carry among the widest selection of fruit juices, both Kern1s juices as well as imports from India and Canada. And there is also a selection of instant juice: frozen or available as a powder.

The overriding characteristic of the Somali diet is that it consists of halal foods (Arabic for "allowable" as opposed to haram: "prohibited"). Somalis are Muslims and under Islamic Law (or Shar'1ah), pork and alcohol are not allowed.

Other common foods include a type of homemade bread called injera (like a large, spongy pancake) and sambusas (like the Indian samosas), which are deep-fried triangular-shaped pastries filled with meat or vegetables.

The cuisine of Somalia varies from region to region and consists of an exotic mixture of native Somali,Yemeni, Persian, Turkish, Indian and Italian influences. It is the product of Somalia's rich tradition of trade and commerce. Despite the variety, there remains one thing that unites the various regional cuisines: all food is served halal.

Drink

Somalis adore spiced tea. A minority of Somalis drink a tea similar to Turkish tea which they brought from Middle eastern countries to their homeland. However, the majority drink a traditional and cultural tea known as Shah Hawaash because it is made of cardamom (in Somali, Xawaash or Hayle} and cinnamon bark (in Somali, Qoronfil).

Islam forbids alcohol and Somalia follows this rather strictly. If you do find some, don't show it or drink it in public, as there's a strong chance that you could offend and be fined. Abdalla Nuradin Bar offers alcohol for foreign tourists.

As for the coffee (kahwa) itself, try mirra, made in the Somali style. Sometimes spiced with cardamom, it's strong and tastes great, particularly drunk with fresh dates. Tea (chai) usually comes with dollops of sugar and perhaps a few mint leaves (na'ana).

Sleep

Bosaso and Hargeisa have some Western-level hotels. Hotels are also available in Mogadishu, typically with security as a top priority.

Work

There are not many opportunities to work for foreigners, beyond working for NGOs or similar organizations.

Notably the telecommunications industry has been recently booming, and it has managed to get foreign investments to come into the country. The telecommunications industry has benefited from its ability to provide services, such as money transfers, that had greatly suffered from the war.

Stay safe

The Somaliland capital Hargeisa is the safest city in what is nominally Somalia. It is quite westernised and welcomes foreigners more than any other place in Somalia. If you are planning to go to Somalia then we strongly recommend that you go to Hargeisa instead of any other city. At the risk of sounding like a broken record, the easiest method for staying safe in Somalia is not to go in the first place. Kidnappings, armed clashes, piracy, and warlording are all common in Somalia. In June 2016, at least 15 were killed in a hotel attack in Mogadishu.

A federal government was established in 2012. This government is currently fighting a military campaign against radical al-Qaeda backed insurgents based in rural areas, with the support of an African Union peacekeeping force. Other entities rule other parts of Somalia, though: Somaliland and Puntland are essentially separate countries, as well as Ximan in the middle and a Kenyan-installed state in the south called "Azania". Pirates may control various coastal towns. Be wary of areas where you see armed men, or from where you hear gunfire or explosions. Somali insurgents also launch mortar attacks onto civilian population centres and government compounds. Somali government forces have also launched artillery attacks against insurgents positioned in urban areas, which have resulted in civilian casualties. Keep in mind that shells could start raining down at any moment, especially if there are any signs of fighting nearby, and that you will have seconds to start running or take cover if you hear the tell-tale sound of an incoming shell. For more information, see War zone safety.

Also, be wary of violent crime. Although the Somali government has established a police force, it is still developing, and crime rates are still high. Be aware that there are many warlords and criminals in Somalia who will try to kidnap a foreigner and hold him or her for ransom.

Driving is on the right. While Somali drivers have something of a reputation for bad driving, the reality is slightly more nuanced. Risks are taken, particularly in Mogadishu, which would not normally be taken in other places, but the locals expect this to happen and compensate accordingly.

While arranging your trip, it is advisable to request that you be accompanied by hired Somali armed escorts, or bring along bodyguards.

As of 2014, nine nations have embassies in Mogadishu: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Iran, Italy, Libya, Sudan, Turkey, Uganda, the United Kingdom and Yemen with six more nations planning to re-open their embassies soon. However, there are no embassies in Hargeisa; therefore, in most cases, no representative of your home government will be able to assist you if you get in trouble in Somaliland. The closest consular services for most countries are in neighbouring Djibouti, Ethiopia, or Kenya, and further afield in Sudan and Egypt.

Stay healthy

Water is mostly contaminated. Stick to sealed, preferably non-Somalian, bottled fluids. Your guide will provide you with food and water.

Respect

This is a Muslim country. As such, be sensitive about where you point your camera. There are many great photo opportunities around every corner (the question is usually what to leave out of each image), but when photographing people, always ask first. Don't ever, ever try to take pictures of women, even if you're a woman yourself. This is considered a great offense and can even result in more than a few harsh words. Also don't try to take pictures of anything that looks as if it could be of any strategic importance (i.e., has at least one soldier, policeman or, more likely, armed militiaman guarding it).

Respect the Islamic beliefs of Somali people: Women shouldn't wear tube tops or skimpy outfits. It is absolutely acceptable for any nationality to wear the traditional Somali clothes.

Do not eat in public during the holy month of Ramadan -- you may be fined or even go to jail. The Al-Shabab Islamist militia can be found in many inhabited areas. They absolutely do not take kindly to any kind of violation of Sharia law, and as they are not affiliated with any kind of government, they do not have to abide by any kind of laws except their own. They will feel free to punish any aberrant behavior any way they please, often by floggings, amputations, or even executions. Government authorities also punish violations of Sharia law, but these are generally less harsh than those imposed by insurgents.

Alcohol is prohibited in Somalia and possessing alcohol will get you into a lot of trouble -- and never drink and drive.

If you're dining with a Somali, don't expose the bottoms of your feet to him/her. Don't eat with your left hand either, since the left hand is seen as the 'dirty hand'. Similarly, don't attempt to shake hands or hand a package with your left hand.

If your Somali friend insists on buying you something - a meal or a gift - let him! Somalis are extremely hospitable, and typically there are no strings attached. It is generally a custom to argue for the bill.

Never discuss religion from an atheistic or similar point of view. Even highly-educated Somalis who studied abroad won't appreciate it and doors will close for you. Also be aware that the Islamic "call to prayer" happens five times daily and can be heard loudly almost anywhere you go. Just understand that most Somali people are used to it and enjoy it as part of the cultural experience. If you aren't Muslim, it is not expected for you to participate, but you should always sit quietly and respectfully until the prayers end.

Staring is quite common in Somalia; children, men and women are likely to stare at you simply for being a foreigner, especially if you travel off-season and in out-of-the-way places. This is not meant as an insult; it rather shows an interest, and a friendly smile will leave the kids giggling and showing off, and the adults happily trying out their few English phrases.

Men

Men wear trousers or a flowing plaid ma'awis (kilt) western shirts, and shawls. On their heads they may wrap a colourful turban or wear a koofiyad (embroidered cap).

Due to its Islamic heritage, many Somalis wear long dresses known in the Arab and Islamic worlds as khameez/thobe. In recent years, many men in Somalia choose to wear suits and ties to look more modern. This western dress code is dominant amongst members of the Somali upper class and the government.

Homosexuality is punishable by death. It is common for Somali men to walk hand in hand as a sign of friendship, but it would be unwise for Western men to attempt the same. Sharing a hotel room as a way of cutting costs is normal, but don't even think about asking for one bed for two.

Women

Women usually wear one of the following dress: Direh, a long, billowing dress worn over petticoats; coantino, a four-yard cloth tied over shoulder and draped around the waist. They also wear an abaya, a long and loose black robe.

Connect

The public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions. Local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centres. International connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite. International outgoing connections also work from the cellular infrastructure. There is dialup internet access in Mogadishu, by visiting one of the internet cafés. Somalia has the cheapest cellular calling rates on the continent, with some companies charging less than the equivalent of one US cent per minute. Competing phone companies have agreed on interconnection standards, which were brokered by the United Nations funded Somali Telecom Association.

Wireless service and Internet cafés are available, but do remember that the .so domain is not operating in Somalia right now.

  • GSM Cellular Operators in Somalia
  1. Somafone (GPRS 2G network)
  2. Nationallink
  3. Hormuud Telecom
  4. Telsom Mobile
  5. Golis Telecom Somalia

The Pirates of Somalia: Inside Their Hidden World

Jay Bahadur

The first close-up look at the hidden world of Somali pirates by a young journalist who dared to make his way into their remote havens and spent a year infiltrating their lives. For centuries, stories of pirates have captured imaginations around the world. The recent ragtag bands of pirates off the coast of Somalia, hijacking multimillion-dollar tankers owned by international shipping conglomerates, have brought the scourge of piracy into the modern era. Jay Bahadur’s riveting narrative exposé—the first of its kind—looks at who these men are, how they live, the forces that created piracy in Somalia, how the pirates spend the ransom money, how they deal with their hostages, among much, much more. It is a revelation of a dangerous world at the epicenter of political and natural disaster. 

SOMALIA Country Studies: A brief, comprehensive study of Somalia

State Department

A brief yet detailed report on the country of Somalia with updated information on the map, flag, history, people, economics, political conditions in government, foreign affairs, and U.S. relations.

Born in the Big Rains: A Memoir of Somalia and Survival (Women Writing Africa)

Fadumo Korn

“A courageous . . . indispensable testament.”—Elfriede Jelinek, 2004 Nobel Laureate in LiteratureSelected as a Kirkus Reviews top pick for book clubs, Fadumo Korn’s story describes her brutal circumcision at age seven and her agonizing path to physical and psychological recovery.As a feisty nomad, Fadumo freely roamed the wild steppes of her native Somalia until her mother delivered her into the hands of an excisor to undergo female genital cutting (FGC, also known as female genital mutilation or FGM), to be made a woman in the eyes of her tribe. The complications brought on by the circumcision provide the impetus to her search for health and her story. Fadumo first travels to the bustling city of Mogadishu and the household of a wealthy uncle, brother of the Somali president. She enters a world of luxury underpinned by political instability and cruelty in a country gearing for rebellion. As her symptoms worsen, she journeys to Germany, where she receives not only therapy but love and acceptance from the most unlikely of places.Fadumo Korn weaves together a sensitive understanding of traditional practices with revelations about their disturbing effects. This deftly crafted tale, full of sorrow and surprising humor, provides a candid history of a life sculpted by crippling rheumatism and an unexpected path to recovery.

Welcome to Somalia (Welcome to the World)

Elma Schemenauer

Book by Schemenauer, Elma

Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea

Robert D. Kaplan

Robert D. Kaplan is one of our leading international journalists, someone who can explain the most complicated and volatile regions and show why they’re relevant to our world. In Surrender or Starve, Kaplan illuminates the fault lines in the Horn of Africa, which is emerging as a crucial region for America’s ongoing war on terrorism. Reporting from Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Eritrea, Kaplan examines the factors behind the famine that ravaged the region in the 1980s, exploring the ethnic, religious, and class conflicts that are crucial for understanding the region today. He offers a new foreword and afterword that show how the nations have developed since the famine, and why this region will only grow more important to the United States. Wielding his trademark ability to blend on-the-ground reporting and cogent analysis, Robert D. Kaplan introduces us to a fascinating part of the world, one that it would behoove all of us to know more about.

Somalia 1:1,750,000 Travel Map with Mogadishu plan

G.Bassa

Somalia, Somaliland & Puntland 1:1,750,000 Travel Map with Mogadishu plan GIZI, 2013 edition

Map of Somalia plus Djibouti at 1:1,750,000 with excellent topographic detail and tourist information.

Vivid altitude colouring with graphics for deserts, flood plains and salt flats shows the terrain. Oases, water wells and numerous spot heights are marked and the map provides plenty of names of geographical features: peaks, mountain chains, plains, etc. The surrounding seas have depth tinting with soundings and show coral reefs.

Road network indicates distances on main and most secondary roads and includes dirt tracks. The map shows railway lines, locations of local airfields and main shipping routes. Symbols highlight places of tourist interest including world heritage sites, famous mosques and archaeological remains, national parks and nature reserves, diving sites, etc.

The map also shows internal administrative boundaries with names of the provinces. The areas of Somaliland and autonomous territories of Puntland, Galmudug and Jubaland are indicated.

Two insets provide an overview map of greater Mogadishu at 1:40,000 (including the Aden international airport) and a more detailed street plan of the city centre at 1:20,000

Names of main towns and important geographical features are also given in Arabic. Multilingual map legend includes English.

Birds of the Horn of Africa: Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, and Socotra (Princeton Field Guides)

Nigel Redman

Birds of the Horn of Africa is widely regarded as the best field guide to the more than 1,000 species of resident, migrant, and vagrant birds found in northeast Africa--and it just got even better. Now fully revised and expanded, this comprehensive, easy-to-use guide has been updated with the latest information on distribution, identification, and taxonomy. New vagrants to the region have been added; color plates, illustrations, and distribution maps have been thoroughly updated and improved; and much more--making this still the must-have guide for birders, naturalists, and travelers in the region.

Covers Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, and the Socotra archipelagoFeatures more than 2,600 illustrations on 213 stunning color platesProvides a color distribution map for every speciesDetailed species accounts on facing pages describe key identification features, similar species, geographical variation, habitat, status, and voiceIncludes a glossary, identification tips, and information about habitatsKey identification features are shown more prominently in the textNow includes an annotated distributional checklist by country and a comparison table for large white-headed gulls

City Maps Jamaame Somalia

James McFee

City Maps Jamaame Somalia is an easy to use small pocket book filled with all you need for your stay in the big city. Attractions, pubs, bars, restaurants, museums, convenience stores, clothing stores, shopping centers, marketplaces, police, emergency facilities are only some of the places you will find in this map. This collection of maps is up to date with the latest developments of the city as of 2017. We hope you let this map be part of yet another fun Jamaame adventure :)

AVOID ALL TRAVEL

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.

If you are currently in Somalia despite this advisory, you should leave immediately. There is no resident Canadian government office in Somalia, and the Government of Canada cannot provide consular assistance to Canadian citizens in distress in Somalia. If you are confronted with an emergency in Somalia, you will have to make your way to the nearest Canadian embassy or consulate or rely on your own resources.

The security situation in Somalia is dangerous and unpredictable, particularly in south-central Somalia and the capital, Mogadishu. Fighting over the control of these areas between the government (supported by international troops) and the terrorist group Al Shabaab and others continues, despite the election of a new parliament and president in August/September 2012.

There is a high threat from terrorism in Somalia. Regional terror groups, including al Qaeda and al-Shabaab, continue to threaten Western interests. Terrorist attacks against government targets involving the use of heavy weapons are frequent, particularly in Mogadishu. Public venues such as hotels and restaurants as well as international institutions have also been targeted and civilian casualties are not uncommon. Further attacks cannot be ruled out. Be vigilant in crowded places and monitor local media.

The ongoing situation represents a very serious threat to travellers. Violent demonstrations, attacks and armed military activity can occur at any time. You should also be aware that anti-Western sentiment may at times be strong. Foreign travellers, including journalists, human rights activists and humanitarian workers, are at risk of kidnapping, murder and  arrest without notice or apparent cause. 

The rule of law is virtually non-existent and there is no guarantee of a fair trial or that local courts will respect diplomatic or United Nations immunities.

Canadians who choose to travel despite the advisory may have difficulty in departing the country. Acts of piracy against shipping off the Somali coast continue to occur. The land border between Kenya and Somalia remains closed and air traffic between the two countries is subject to special procedures by the Kenyan government.

Somaliland and Puntland

Somaliland (a self-declared republic seeking independence) and Puntland (an administrative region in the northeast) have remained more stable than the south-central part of the country. However, violent attacks on foreign targets have occurred there as well. In late January 2013, some countries, including the United Kingdom, updated their travel advice to note that there is a specific threat to Westerners in Somaliland. Inter clan conflict often erupts into fighting in the Sanaag and Sool regions of Somaliland along  the border with Puntland. Tensions and violence in the south of the country could spread to Somaliland and Puntland at any time.

Demonstrations

Protests, civil unrest and violent incidents occur in Mogadishu, in response to the rising costs of food and living. Outbreaks of violence can arise unpredictably, and parties involved are often armed. These violent incidents tend to cause civilian casualties. Avoid all public gatherings where violence and demonstrations may occur.

Land and air travel

Mogadishu International Airport is often closed with little or no warning due to fighting. Should you choose to travel despite the advisory, you may encounter difficulties in departing the country. Consult our Transportation FAQ in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

The land border between Kenya and Somalia remains closed and air traffic between the two countries is subject to special procedures by the Kenyan government.

General safety information

Tourist facilities are not available. Electricity and water provisions are not assured. International telephone services and Internet access are limited to larger cities.

Piracy

Acts of piracy against shipping off the Somali coast have increased. Mariners should take appropriate precautions. For additional information, consult the Live Piracy Report published by the International Maritime Bureau.

Health

Related Travel Health Notices
Consult a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic preferably six weeks before you travel.
Vaccines

Routine Vaccines

Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.

Vaccines to Consider

You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.

Influenza

Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.

Measles

Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.
 

Polio

There is a risk of polio in this country. Be sure that your vaccination against polio is up-to-date.

Rabies

Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).

Typhoid

Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives, or with weakened immune systems. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should consider getting vaccinated.

Yellow Fever Vaccination

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
Risk
  • There is low potential for yellow fever exposure in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
  • Proof of vaccination is required if you are coming from a country where yellow fever occurs.
Recommendation
  • Vaccination may be recommended depending on your itinerary.
  • Discuss travel plans, activities, and destinations with a health care provider.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites.
Food/Water

Food and Water-borne Diseases

Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.

In some areas in East Africa, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in East Africa. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!

Cholera

There have been cases of cholera reported in this country in the last year. Cholera is a bacterial disease that typically causes diarrhea. In severe cases it can lead to dehydration and even death.

Most travellers are generally at low risk. Humanitarian workers and those visiting areas with limited access to safe food and water are at higher risk. Practise safe food and water precautions. Travellers at high risk should get vaccinated.

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis is caused by blood flukes (tiny worms) spread to humans through contaminated water. The eggs of the worms can cause stomach illnesses like diarrhea and cramps or urinary problems. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Avoid swimming in contaminated water. There is no vaccine available for schistosomiasis.

Travellers' diarrhea
  • Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
  • Risk of developing travellers’ diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
  • The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.

Insects

Insects and Illness

In some areas in East Africa, certain insects carry and spread diseases like African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis (river blindness), Rift Valley feverWest Nile virus and yellow fever.

Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.

Dengue fever
  • Dengue fever occurs in this country. Dengue fever is a viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms. In some cases it leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.  
  • Mosquitoes carrying dengue bite during the daytime. They breed in standing water and are often found in urban areas.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine available for dengue fever.

Malaria

Malaria

  • There is a risk of malaria throughout the year in the whole country.
  • Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There is no vaccine against malaria.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in well-screened air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet or pre-treating travel gear with insecticides.
  • See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss the benefits of taking antimalarial medication and to determine which one to take.

Animals

Animals and Illness

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, and bats. Certain infections found in some areas in East Africa, like avian influenza and rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.


Person-to-Person

Person-to-Person Infections

Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practise proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are spread through blood and bodily fluids; practise safer sex.

HIV

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). 

Practise safe sex while travelling, and don’t share needles, razors, or other objects which could transmit infection.

Remember that HIV can also be spread through the use of unsterile medical equipment during medical and dental procedures, tattooing, body piercing or acupuncture. Diseases can also be spread though blood transfusions and organ transplantation if the blood or organs are not screened for HIV or other blood-borne pathogens.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.

For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.

Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care provider.

High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.


Medical services and facilities

Medical services and facilities

There are virtually no health facilities or medicines available in Somalia. You must be completely self-sufficient.

Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.

Homosexual activity is illegal.

Forced marriages

There are reports of women holding Canadian citizenship being forced into marriage without their prior knowledge or consent. Parents, relatives and the community may use relentless pressure and emotional blackmail, threatening behaviour, abduction, imprisonment and physical violence to coerce young people to enter into marriage. While both men and women experience forced marriages, it is a form of violence most commonly perpetrated against women. People have been unable to return to Canada, and their passports and money have been withheld by family members. For more information about forced marriages, consult our Marriage Overseas FAQ and our publication entitled Her Own Way: A Woman’s Safe-Travel Guide.

Money

The currency is the Somali shilling (SOS), except in Somaliland, which uses the Somaliland shilling. U.S. dollars are widely accepted. Credit cards and traveller’s cheques are not accepted in Somalia, and there are no automated banking machines (ABMs).

Climate

Drought

Due to below-average rainfall over the last four years, many regions of eastern Africa are currently afflicted by severe drought, including Somalia. You should expect difficulties travelling overland. Local services and the availability of water and basic food may be affected.

Monsoon season

The climate in Somalia is very hot and dry. However, a monsoon season extends from May to October in the southwest and from December to February in the northeast. There are also short rainy seasons in other parts of the country. Keep informed of regional weather forecasts and plan accordingly.