South Sudan is a country in Central Africa. It was a region of Sudan until it became an independent country on 9 July 2011 after a referendum was held in January that year. It borders Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic.
South Sudan was once part of Sudan, but gained its independence in 2011, following a long war in which over 1 million people were killed, and a historic referendum. Although South Sudan was granted independence by Sudan after an overwhelming vote for independence in the referendum, relations between the two Sudans remain tense. Sudan depends on hard currency obtained from transshipping oil from South Sudan through Port Sudan on the Red Sea, while the landlocked South Sudan depends on access to that port, and the two countries have argued about terms for transshipment. There has also been some armed conflict over the oil-rich Abyei District which is ruled by Sudan but borders on South Sudan, and the Sudan People's Liberation Army - North, which fought alongside the Sudan People's Liberation Army that now rules South Sudan, continues to fight in the Sudanese provinces of Blue Nile and South Kordofan, with the sympathy and, allegedly, military aid of the South Sudanese government.
South Sudan has more than 60 indigenous peoples. The Dinka comprise 40% of the population.
South Sudan's climate is similar to an equatorial or tropical climate, and has a rainy season of high humidity and large amounts of rainfall followed by a drier season.
As South Sudan achieved independence in 2011, the immigration rules are still prone to change. They have, however, instituted proper visas in your passport now, instead of the travel permits that had been used. The visas are issued for US$100 at all border crossings and Juba International Airport. The length of the visas issued seems to vary randomly between 1 and 6 months. An invitation letter may be required depending on which official is at the desk on your day of arrival. The process can take 3 hours. If you do not have a local contact with official connections, it would be safer to get a visa before arriving in the country. Visas are now available from the embassy in London for UK₤35 cash and typically take 3 working days to process.
There are no direct commercial flights from outside Africa. So, changing planes is necessary; most airlines flying into Juba depart from Cairo (Egypt), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Entebbe (Uganda), Nairobi (Kenya) and Khartoum (Sudan) from where you should be able to manage flights to and from Europe, Asia or the Americas.
There is one railway line in South Sudan that enters from Sudan in the north and terminates at Wau. Before independence there were services between Wau and Babanosa, which had rail connections to Khartoum. As of 2014, however, there are no scheduled passenger services; indeed, the entire Sudanese rail network has come to a halt. Sporadic and non-scheduled trains may, however, still run, so you can try contacting the Sudan Railways Corporation for more information.
English and Arabic (Juba Arabic) are the official languages of South Sudan, although Dinka is the most widely spoken language. Jur Modo, Nuer, Chollo/Shilluk, and Zande languages are also spoken there.
Safaris to Boma National Park and Nimule National Park. See the parks by 4x4 vehicle or aircraft. See the greatest migration of mammals on the earth.
If you're feeling charitable, visit the Angels of East Africa orphanage (as featured in the film Machine Gun Preacher), also located in Nimule.
The currency of the country is the South Sudanese pound (ISO currency code: SSP). It is divided into 100 piasters.
In the towns of South Sudan such as Rumbek and Juba, Kenyan and Ugandan beers are starting to appear in bars at inflated cross-border prices.
Fresh fruit juices are available throughout Sudan. One of the local juices is "aradeab"(tamarind).
The cloves-flavoured tea (chai) is very good. Outside the capital, you'll pay usually 10 SSP for one cup. Also the ginger-flavoured coffee is to be tried. Both are very sweet, so if you don't want sugar or you want it separately, mention this when you order.
Although the level of violence has subsided since the establishment of the country and the end of the civil war, South Sudan remains dangerous for travel as ceasefire violations and boundary disputes have continued. Travel near the Sudan or Central African Republic borders is extremely dangerous. Western governments continue to advise against all travel to South Sudan and the adjacent regions in Sudan. Violent crime remains problematic; unexploded ordnance from years of civil war also poses hazards to civilians.
It's a malarial area, so before arriving, visit a tropical vaccination center to get prophylactic treatment and the necessary vaccines, including yellow fever, polio and hepatitis A and B. Be sure to sleep under a mosquito net and use mosquito repellent. Most of the South Sudanese drink water from the rivers, which exposes them to diarrhoea and cholera. If bottled water is not available, boil/chlorinate the river water before drinking it.
A brief yet detailed report on the country of South Sudan with updated information on the map, flag, history, people, economics, political conditions in government, foreign affairs, and U.S. relations.
This is the first ever standalone travel guide to the world’s newest country. South Sudan has emerged from decades of inaccessibility as a vibrant and diverse destination. One of the world’s largest wetlands, tropical forests and the second-largest wildlife migration on earth draw nature lovers in pursuit of experiences far from the madding crowd, while tribal peoples such as the Dinka, Bari and Zande preserve unique cultures thousands of years in the making. With detailed maps and extensive coverage of security issues, the guide includes coverage of disputed and unstable areas for the benefit of aid workers and business travelers.
After decades of war, South Sudan became an independent country in 2011. Though its people face struggles as they build their new nation, they do have reason for national pride. Their country contains Bandingilo National Park, which hosts one of the largest annual animal migrations. This title describes the birth of South Sudan and its efforts to create a national identity.
After decades of civil war a peace deal is in the offing for the ravaged land of South Sudan, where the United Nations and a plethora of non-government organisations have come together to deliver emergency aid to the thousands of displaced and homeless people scattered in camps and villages across the vast wilderness of swamps and scrubland, where rogue militias, cattle raiders and bandits roam. Richards is a UN official on his final mission, leading a small team to a remote region. For him it is not just the war which is ending, but the world he has come to inhabit. Detachment and isolation from all that is around him begin to take hold and memories of another life threaten to break through the thin walls he has built around himself. As he sinks deeper into inner darkness a chance meeting with a young priest seems to offer the hope of a way back to belief in humanity and meaning, but the road is rough.
On May 19, 2015, a battle was taking place on the Nile River in South Sudan and the potential outcome was anyone’s guess. Not far away lay the only functioning oil refinery in the country. The rebels planned to take over the refinery and hold the nation to ransom. "God’s Travel Advisory" traces the day to day reality of a mission to minister to traumatized displaced Christians in an unpredictable and unstable place. It tells the true story of God’s call despite a travel advisory that said “Avoid All Travel.” Beyond the mission story, the reader will be both challenged and encouraged to consider how the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18-20) intersects with his/her own life. A key chapter explains the urgency of helping South Sudan.It is hoped that this book will inspire:1.Potential missionaries to answer God’s call. 2.Churches to pursue the Great Commission.3.Givers to fund Kingdom work in dark places.4.Christians to have compassion on churches trapped in political violence.5.Christians to answer an urgent call to care for vulnerable children.
The book Why Did You Come If You Leave Again? is an ethnographer’s personal account of the five years he spent in one of the remotest parts of Africa. In the author’s comprehensive monograph (eight volumes published by Schwabe) about the Anyuak, a little-known tribe in South Sudan, there was no space left for a portrait of the person who did the fieldwork, his professional and personal itinerary, his experiences and attitudes, his relationship with the local people—let alone for all the adventures he lived when crossing the wilderness and when struggling to stay alive.
The travel autobiography sheds light on the long and tedious process of ethnographic fieldwork; it is both personal and profound, varying between moments of actions and reflections and eventually leading to an intimate encounter with an African culture. The many riveting stories told in the book are signposts of a spiritual, psychological, philosophical, and physically exhausting expedition through arid savannah, flooded plains, and compact walls of elephant grass to the spiritual home of a courageous people who have created in the middle of wilderness a center of humanity. Though the narrative is essentially about the discovery of a foreign culture, it also relates the exploration of the ethnographer’s own identity in an environment that didn’t offer any possibility to escape.
The book is about thirst, starvation, loneliness and lightening, sickness and death, joy and deliverance, snakes and spirits, shadow, spittle and footprints, and eventually about the author’s quest for meaning, beauty, and understanding of the world. The memoir tells a saga about forlornness, hope, and achievement, and last but not least, growing friendships as the only reward for struggle and pain. The researcher’s autobiography is captivating for the soul and the mind. It is funny, sad, informative, inspiring, and poetic.
As America commits military personnel to Central Africa, learn about the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), led by Joseph Kony. In announcing the deployment of U.S. military troops, President Obama stated: "For more than two decades, the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has murdered, raped, and kidnapped tens of thousands of men, women, and children in central Africa. The LRA continues to commit atrocities across the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and South Sudan that have a disproportionate impact on regional security. Since 2008, the United States has supported regional military efforts to pursue the LRA and protect local communities. Even with some limited U.S. assistance, however, regional military efforts have thus far been unsuccessful in removing LRA leader Joseph Kony or his top commanders from the battlefield. In the Lord's Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act of 2009, Public Law 111 172, enacted May 24, 2010, the Congress also expressed support for increased, comprehensive U.S. efforts to help mitigate and eliminate the threat posed by the LRA to civilians and regional stability."This essential compilation of government and military reports and papers, totaling over 700 pages, provides analysis and background data on the LRA and related issues includes extensive background information on Uganda, the Central African Republic (CAR), South Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa). There is in-depth coverage of human rights and counterterrorism in those Central African countries, plus detailed information from the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM). There is review of the history of U.S. military involvement in Africa, the expanding role of U.S. military assistance and security cooperation in Africa, and the use of U.S. Armed Forces in Africa from 1950 to 2008.In May 2010, President Obama signed into law the LRA Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act, which reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to support regional partners’ efforts to end the atrocities of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) in central Africa. For more than two decades, the LRA has murdered, raped and kidnapped tens of thousands of innocent men, women and children. Since 2008 alone, the LRA has killed more than 2,400 people and abducted more than 3,400. The United Nations estimates that over 380,000 people are displaced across Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and South Sudan as a result of LRA activity. The United States’ comprehensive, multi-year strategy seeks to help mitigate and end the threat posed to civilians and regional stability by the LRA. The strategy outlined four strategic objectives for U.S. support: (1) the increased protection of civilians, (2) the apprehension or removal of Joseph Kony and senior LRA commanders from the battlefield, (3) the promotion of defections and support of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of remaining LRA fighters, and (4) the provision of continued humanitarian relief to affected communities. The United States’ decision to send a small group of military advisers to assist the forces that are countering the LRA forms part of our continuing effort to achieve these strategic objectives. This is a privately authored news service and educational publication of Progressive Management.
This the fully-updated and revised second edition of the very first ever guidebook to South Sudan, the word's newest country. Complete with detailed information of what to see and do in the country, how to travel around, full accommodation listings, all the latest on restaurants and entertainment, plenty of cultural tips and etiquette - plus our invaluable living and working section! Not to mention a detailed chapter on learning Juba Arabic, written in collaboration with a native speaker of the language.
The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.
Military activity, including clashes, took place in and around Juba in mid-December 2013. The situation in Juba has largely stabilized, although it has significantly deteriorated elsewhere in the country. A curfew is in effect from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. in many locations, including in Juba.
Inter-tribal clashes occur without warning throughout the country, and there is frequent fighting between the army and armed militia groups. The risk of domestic terrorism is high.
The situation is extremely volatile in Jonglei State (more specifically in Bor and in Akobo), where sustained fighting and inter-ethnic violence has been reported since mid-December 2013.
Tensions between South Sudan and Sudan have led to increased military activity in regions bordering Sudan, and both states have threatened to escalate their activities. Aerial bombardments have been reported in Unity State (including the town of Bentiu), Upper Nile State, and Northern Bahr el Ghazal State. Fighting in the border regions in recent months has displaced tens of thousands of people on both sides of the border, according to the United Nations.
Be aware of security threats in the oil development region (including Unity state, Northern Bahr-al-Ghazal state, Northern Warrap state, and Northwestern Jonglei state). Oil installations and the surrounding areas are potential targets for military and rebel attacks.
The Abyei region, which borders Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Warrap, and Unity states, is a disputed territory between Sudan and South Sudan. Since 2011, the Abyei region has been the site of frequent fighting and mass displacement. In April 2012, South Sudan announced plans to escalate its military activities in the Abyei region.
There is a heightened risk of attacks and kidnappings in the region. Armed groups have carried out successful attacks on foreign workers, including oil-field workers.
The presence of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) within DRC and CAR has been a source of cross-border attacks into South Sudan. In March 2012, the African Union launched a joint military offensive against the LRA. A previous joint offensive led to violent LRA retaliations against the civilian population in villages located in western border areas. Hundreds of people have been killed and thousands more have fled the region. There is a heightened risk of attacks and kidnappings in the region.
Regional terror groups, including those associated with al Qaeda and al-Shabaab, continue to threaten Western interests and other potential targets in South Sudan. The September 21, 2013 attack on an upscale Nairobi mall illustrates the threat of attacks on civilians in East Africa. Further attacks cannot be ruled out. Be vigilant in crowded places and monitor local media.
There is widespread violent crime, including kidnappings, armed robbery and burglary, throughout South Sudan. The security risk is especially high in Juba, which has seen regular outbreaks of violence and lawlessness as well as an increase in crimes involving guns.
Demonstrations occur and have the potential to suddenly turn violent. They can lead to significant disruptions to traffic and public transportation. Avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings, follow the advice of local authorities and monitor local media.
Road conditions in South Sudan are poor. Many roads are sand tracks. A four-wheel-drive vehicle is required except in some urban areas such as Juba and Malakal. Only experienced and fully equipped travellers should undertake desert travel; basic equipment should include a shovel, metal ramps for heavy sand, a Global Positioning System (GPS) device, spare fuel and water supplies. Roadblocks are common. You should have your identity and vehicle documents readily available. Unpredictable local driving habits, pedestrians and roaming animals pose risks.
Taxis are available in urban centres but are generally old and uncomfortable. Public transportation is limited outside of major urban areas.
An irregular train service operates between Wau and Khartoum. Trains are dilapidated. Only top-of-the-line buses should be used; most other buses are irregularly scheduled, poorly maintained and very badly driven. Fatal accidents involving buses are routine.
Sudan Airways runs air services between Khartoum and Juba, Wau and Malakal.There have been several crashes involving Sudan Airways and other carriers operating within Sudan and South Sudan, resulting in significant loss of life. A number of air-transport options are now available for internal travel. With the secession of South Sudan, the normal points of entry into the new country are now generally Nairobi, Kenya; Entebbe and Kampala, Uganda; and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Flying from Khartoum into Juba is possible, but the airlines operate old planes. Note that additional documents may be required for entry when flying from Khartoum. Consult our Transportation FAQ in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.
You should arrive at Juba's international airport at least two - and preferably three - hours before departure. Departure formalities are complicated and non-computerized. There is no sign board to indicate departure and arrival times and you should expect delays. Be advised that flights between Juba and Khartoum, Sudan, stopped operating in April 2012.
Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.
Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.
Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.
Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.
This country is in the African Meningitis Belt, an area where there are many cases of meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease (meningitis) is a serious and sometimes fatal infection of the tissue around the brain and the spinal cord. Travellers who may be at high risk should consider getting vaccinated. High-risk travellers include those living or working with the local population (e.g., health care workers), those travelling to crowded areas or taking part in large gatherings, or those travelling for a longer period of time.
There is a risk of polio in this country. Be sure that your vaccination against polio is up-to-date.
Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).
Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives, or with weakened immune systems. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should consider getting vaccinated.
Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.
Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.
|* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.|
|Country Entry Requirement*|
Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.
In some areas in Central Africa, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in Central Africa. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!
Schistosomiasis is caused by blood flukes (tiny worms) spread to humans through contaminated water. The eggs of the worms can cause stomach illnesses like diarrhea and cramps or urinary problems. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Avoid swimming in contaminated water. There is no vaccine available for schistosomiasis.
In some areas in Central Africa, certain insects carry and spread diseases like African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis, Rift Valley fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever.
Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.
African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is caused by a parasite spread through the bite of a tsetse fly. Tsetse fly bites are painful and if the disease is left untreated it is eventually fatal. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from bites especially in game parks and rural areas during the day. Avoid wearing bright or dark-coloured clothing as these colours attract tsetse flies. There is no vaccine available for this disease.
Visceral leishmaniasis (or kala azar) affects the bone marrow and internal organs. It is caused by a parasite spread through the bite of a female sandfly. It can also be transmitted by blood transfusion or sharing contaminated needles. If left untreated it can cause death. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from sandfly bites, which typically occur after sunset in rural and forested areas and in some urban centres. There is no vaccine available for leishmaniasis.
Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is an eye and skin disease caused by a parasite spread through the bite of an infected female blackfly. Onchocerciasis often leads to blindness if left untreated. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from blackfly bites, which are most common during the daytime and close to running water. There is no vaccine available for onchocerciasis although drug treatments exist.
Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Certain infections found in Central Africa, like rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).
Practise safe sex while travelling, and don’t share needles, razors, or other objects which could transmit infection.
Remember that HIV can also be spread through the use of unsterile medical equipment during medical and dental procedures, tattooing, body piercing or acupuncture. Diseases can also be spread though blood transfusions and organ transplantation if the blood or organs are not screened for HIV or other blood-borne pathogens.
Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.
For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.
Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care provider.
High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.
The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.
You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.
A permit for photography is required. Permits can be obtained at the Ministry of Information. Even with a photography permit, taking pictures of or near military installations is strictly prohibited.
Public displays of affection between members of the opposite sex are frowned upon; overtly homosexual behaviour will render an individual liable to immediate arrest, and possibly imprisonment.
By Western standards, the Republic of South Sudan is a traditional, conservative society. Women should dress conservatively (no short skirts, bare arms or low necklines); men and women should not wear shorts in public and should be extremely discreet when swimming.
The currency is the South Sudan pound (SSP). The Sudan pound is not recognized as legal tender. Only change money at banks and other established institutions, as money changers who operate on the street often scam travellers with counterfeit notes. You should carry sufficient funds in U.S. dollars to cover your expenses for the duration of your stay and assume that you will have to pay for all international flights booked in South Sudan in U.S. dollars. Transferring U.S. or Canadian dollars to the country is impossible. Most currency exchange houses and merchants do not accept U.S. currency dated before 2006.
Credit cards and traveller’s cheques are not accepted in South Sudan. There are automated banking machines (ABMs), but they are not reliable. Larger expenses, such as hotel bills, must be paid in cash.
The rainy season in South Sudan lasts six months, from May to October. Some roads may become impassable during this period due to flooding. You should keep informed of regional weather forecasts and plan accordingly.