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Chad

Chad (Arabic: ????, French: Tchad) is one of the poorest and most corruptly mis-governed countries in the world, with most of its inhabitants living in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers.

It shares a short border with Nigeria and is landlocked in the Sahel, south of Libya, east of Niger and Cameroon, north of the Central African Republic, and west of Sudan.

Due to its distance from the sea and desert climate, Chad is sometimes described as the "Dead Heart of Africa".

Regions

Cities

  • N'Djamena
  • Moundou
  • Abéché
  • Faya

Understand

History

For more than 2000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary peoples. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artefacts and oral histories. The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region.

French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. The French primarily viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton. The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service.

Fifteen thousand Chadian soldiers fought for Free France during WWII and after the war ended, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to both the French National Assembly, and to a Chadian assembly. Chad was granted independence on 11 August 1960 with the PPT's leader, François Tombalbaye, as its first president. Two years later, Tombalbaye banned opposition parties and established a one-party system. In 1965 Muslims began a civil war. Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed in 1975, but the insurgency continued. In 1979 the rebel factions conquered the capital, and all central authority in the country collapsed. The disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country, and a civil war in which the Libyans (unsuccessfully) became involved.

A semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which sporadically flares up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005 new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and have made probing attacks into eastern Chad. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss Deby won a referendum to remove constitutional term limits. In February 2008, an attempted coup rocked the capital.

Climate

Each year a tropical weather system known as the inter-tropical front crosses Chad from south to north, bringing a wet season that lasts from May to October in the south, and from June to September in the Sahel.

Landscape

The country's landscape comprises broad, arid plains in the centre, desert in the north, mountains in the northwest, and lowlands in the south. Lowest point: Djourab Depression (160 m/525 ft). Highest point: Emi Koussi (3,415 m/11,204 ft).

The dominant physical structure is a wide basin bounded to the north, east and south by mountain ranges such as the Ennedi Plateau in the north-east. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the remains of an immense lake that occupied 330,000 km2 (205,000 mi2) of the Chadian Basin 7,000 years ago. Although in the 21st century it covers only 17,806 km2 (11,064 mi2), and its surface area is subject to heavy seasonal fluctuations, the lake is Africa's second largest wetland.

Get in

Visa

Citizens of the following countries do not require a visa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal.

For all others, a visa is necessary. A single-entry visa costs US$100 for 1 month and multiple-entry visas cost US$150 (3 months) or US$200 (6 months). A letter of invitation is required.

By plane

Air France has daily flights from Paris to N'Djaména. Ethiopia Airlines flies to Addis Ababa, Turkish airlines to Istanbul, Royal Air Maroc to Casablanca, Sudan Airways to Khartoum, Egypt Air to Cairo, and Camair-co to Douala.

By train

There are no usable rail links.

By car

Roads are in disrepair and are typically unpaved - there is only one paved road, which currently runs from Massakory in the north through N'Djamena on to Guelendeng, Bongor, Kelo and Moundou. It is the best road in the country but still has numerous potholes and as it runs through the centre of a number of small villages, drivers should exercise caution and moderate speeds even while on the main road.

There are several border crossings with Cameroon, most notably via Kousseri near N'Djamena and near the towns of Bongor and Lere. Be very careful, drive defensively, and don't stop unless absolutely necessary. Do not drive at night, as coupeurs de route (road bandits) are common. They are a particular concern along the two roads leading out of Guelendeng, towards Ba-Illi (where expats were attacked in two separate incidents in 2005, resulting in the death of one Catholic nun) and towards Bongor.

By bus

By boat

It is impossible to reach Chad by boat unless crossing illegally through Lake Chad.

Get around

Talk

The main languages of Chad are Arabic and French. Few Chadians other than the educated and well-travelled speak literary Arabic, however; a dialect of Arabic known as "Chadian Arabic" is much more widely spoken and is the closest thing the country has to a trade language. Chadian Arabic is significantly different from Literary Arabic, but similar to the dialects of Sudan and Egypt. Literary Arabic speakers can typically understand Chadian Arabic but the reverse is not true. Over one hundred indigenous languages are also spoken.

See

  • Oasis of Faya.
  • Lake Chad.
  • Ennedi Plateau.

Do

Parc National de Zakouma

Buy

Money

The currency of the country is the Central African CFA franc, denoted FCFA (ISO currency code: XAF). It's also used by five other Central African countries. It is interchangeable at par with the West African CFA franc (XOF), which is used by six countries. Both currencies are fixed at a rate of 1 euro = 655.957 CFA francs.

There are no restrictions on bringing foreign currencies into Chad. US dollars and euros are often directly accepted in payment.

ATMs

There are Ecobank ATMs in Chad where you can get a cash withdrawal with a Master Card and Visa card. Look at the Ecobank website for a full list of locations.

Eat

Meat dishes are very popular in Chad, and foreign travellers speak highly of the meat (such as lamb). Food is usually eaten without utensils, and hand sanitizer may be a good precaution. Muslims find it offensive to eat with the left hand. If eating with or being served by Muslims in Chad, be sure to eat with your right hand only.

Follow common health travel guidelines concerning raw fruit and cooking requirements to avoid disease. The US State Department website has resources concerning safety while eating abroad.

Because the colonial occupier of Chad (or Tchad) was France, you can easily use euros, too. But for most, Chad is an expensive place compared to the rest of Africa.

Drink

Sleep

Years ago few hotels existed in Chad, but now N'Djamena hosts a myriad of affordable options.

Stay safe

Chad is consistently engulfed in political turmoil and attacks from rebels will probably not happen, but are certainly possible. The situation has stagnated, but it remains a threat. Violence from the Darfur conflict overspills into Eastern Chad from Sudan, a country which shares hostilities with Chad. Any activity outside of N'Djamena is done with difficulty at best. Northern Chad is barren, scorching desert and guides (good luck) and meticulous planning are required. In 2013, Boko Haram jihadists were spotted in Chad.

N'Djamena is RELATIVELY safe, although one should be wary of petty street crime and corrupt police/officials. Most border crossings are extremely difficult (Sudan and Libya not being a viable option) although the border crossings with Niger and Cameroon are relatively painless.

Stay healthy

Don't accept water from any stores unless you know the brand. Eat only your own food that you buy in grocery stores. Avoid restaurants whenever possible. Stay away from people that look sick; there are many diseases in Chad to be aware of. If you are in Chad for a while, go to a doctor once a month if you can afford it.

Respect

There are 200 distinct ethnic groups. In the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad.

The Chadian-Libyan conflict is something to be avoided at all times; Chadians known to be living in Libya have been tortured and murdered on previous occasions.

Connect

The single story about Africa

Photo by Tanja Heffner

In her famous TED talk, Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie warned viewers of “The Danger of a Single Story.” She tells a poignant story of her experience living with her American college roommate in the United States to illustrate her point:

“My roommate had a single story of Africa. A single story of catastrophe. In this single story there was no possibility of Africans being similar to her, in any way. No possibility of feelings more complex than pity. No possibility of a connection as human equals.[…] If I had not grown up in Nigeria, and if all I knew about Africa were from popular images, I too would think that Africa was a place of beautiful landscapes, beautiful animals, and incomprehensible people, fighting senseless wars, dying of poverty and AIDS, unable to speak for themselves, and waiting to be saved, by a kind, white foreigner… The single story creates stereotypes and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story.”

How can you make sure that you too don’t get trapped in a single story of Africa? Here are a few suggestions:

1. Understand the geography of the African continent.

Africa is bigger than the United States, China, India and all of Europe combined. And yet too often, a negative news story about simply one of Africa’s fifty-four countries ends up negatively affecting the whole continent. For example, a BBC article reported that when the Ebola epidemic hit Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea, even countries in sub-Saharan Africa lost tourist revenue: advance bookings for 2015 in Tanzania were 50% lower. Tourists couldn’t understand that cities like Rome and Madrid were closer to the center of the of Ebola outbreak than Tanzania was. Instead they simply assumed that any country in Africa was automatically more dangerous.

2. Acknowledge the successes on the continent, instead of single-mindedly focusing on the negative.

It’s way too simplistic to focus only on the bad news coming out of Africa, particularly when there are plenty of things Africa does better than the States: According to data by the World Bank, Rwanda leads the world in female representation in their government (64% of their government officials are female. In the United States, that number is 18%). Unlike the United States, African countries offer paid maternal leave. Countries like the Central African Republic, Chad, Namibia all also have higher voter turnout rates than we do.

3. Read and watch Western portrayals of the Africa with a critical eye.

As Courtney Martin wrote, “single stories are born, not just from inadequately seeing real people (although that is sometimes the case), but inadequately writing real people — creating caricatures rather than characters.” This happens too often when Westerners attempt to portray African people in their art.

Check out this viral Youtube video made by an organization called Mama Hope, which points out the various stereotypes African men are tired of seeing in Hollywood movies. And check out Binyavanga Wainaina’s video instructing Westerners “How not to write about Africa”:

Keep these videos and idea in mind anytime you’re reading books or watching movies about the continent and its people.

4. Diversify your news sources.

In 2013, the #SomeoneTellCNN controversy in Kenya showed how Western new outlets reporting on Africa can often get the story wrong. Journalists get lazy and write pieces that don’t give the story the actual nuance (or even accuracy) it deserves.

To make sure you’re getting the full context of a story, check out news outlets that actually feature African journalists on the ground. Here are a few:

  • Africa is a Country — This was founded by Sean Jacobs in 2009 and aimed to “challenge the received wisdom about Africa from a left perspective, informed by his experiences of resistance movements to Apartheid.”
  •  

  • Africa Check — This non-profit organization was created in 2012 to “promote accuracy in public debate and the media in Africa” and “raise the quality of information available to society across the continent.”
  •  

  • Okay Africa — This website reports on African youth culture and art, and aims to fill “a much needed gap in representations of Africa by presenting a forward-thinking, nuanced view of Africa today.”
  • City Maps NDjamena Chad

    James McFee

    City Maps NDjamena Chad is an easy to use small pocket book filled with all you need for your stay in the big city. Attractions, pubs, bars, restaurants, museums, convenience stores, clothing stores, shopping centers, marketplaces, police, emergency facilities and the list goes on and on. This collection of maps is up to date with the latest developments of the city. This city map is a must if you wish to enjoy the city without internet connection.

    Chad & Sudan Map Pack

    ITMB Publishing Ltd.

    ITMB is pleased to announce the release of our most recent map pack bundling, this time of Chad & Sudan . This Map Pack has a value of $26 if purchased separately, and a packaged price of $5.95 if purchased in this bundle.The maps are all current editions, conveniently grouped together in transparent plastic bag with a new cover, showing the covers of two maps. Chad Travel Reference Map 1:1,130,000This is a double-sided and very detailed map of Chad. Formerly the northern portion of French Equatorial Africa, Chad is famous among history buffs as being the jump-off point of General LeClerc s masterful march across the Sahara to Tunisia with Free French units loyal to the Allies, during WWII. In more modern terms, Chad is the site of Lake Chad, once a massive interior African lake, but now sadly depleted. The map includes an inset of the capital N Djamena. Sudan Travel Reference Map 3rd Ed., 1:2,500,000.This latest edition comes out at a time when a good map of the largest country in Africa needs a good map the most. Sudan is not a country with an improving infrastructure, nor is it one of the safest countries for travelers. However, its position in Africa makes it pivotal to the politics and ethnicity of much of northeastern Africa, and its importance can be gauged by the fact that this ITMB title is already into its third edition. It is one of the most difficult countries in the world to map, simply because so much of it is difficult to enter. We wish to dedicate this map to those brave souls who continue to provide food, and medical support for all the peoples of Sudan: the humanitarians, whose contributions have made this map possible. *Please note to all retailers and distributors, this product is NOT subject to Return or Exchange. It is well packed and should be sold as a bundle package to customers.*

    Chad 1:1,500,000 Travel Map *** (International Travel Maps)

    ITM Canada

    Double-sided, indexed and very detailed map of Chad. Formerly the northern portion of French Equatorial Africa, Chad is famous among history buffs as being the jump-off point of General LeClerc's masterful march across the Sahara to Tunisia with Free French units loyal to the Allies, during WW1. In more modern terms, Chad is the site of Lake Chad, once a massive interior African lake, but now sadly depleted in size. The map distinguishes roads ranging from divided paced highways to tracks/foot-paths. Legend includes places of interest, mosques, lodges/rest houses, churches, pagodas/temples, clinics, hotels, airfields, national/domestic airports, nature reserves. and includes an inset of the capital N'Djamena.

    Project Future: The Inside Story Behind the Creation of Disney World

    Chad Denver Emerson

    The Walt Disney World Resort near Orlando, Florida is one of the world's most famous vacation destinations. This iconic resort is now located in what once was thousands of acres of swamp and marshland. Through spy-like moves and innovative strategies, Walt Disney and his cadre of creative leaders turned this massive swamp land into today's Disney World. This books shares the amazing behind the scenes story of how Disney's Florida resort, code-named Project Future, rose from the marshes of Central Florida to become one of the world's most popular theme park resorts.

    Under Chad's Spell

    Mr. Michael Varga

    Charlene, a 23-year-old from chilly Minnesota, volunteers to go to Chad, Africa with the Peace Corps in the turbulent 1970s. Young and full of ideals, she hopes to ease the lives of Chadians, but worries about what prompted her—inexperienced and with few skills—to sign up to teach English for two years in Africa. When she fails to connect with the other volunteers or with Chadians, she feels isolated as she struggles to communicate in French and tricky African languages. Charlene is assigned to a city, where she immerses herself in her teaching. Certain Chadian customs horrify her—particularly the treatment of women, who are often considered lesser than any man. Her ex-lover Madison has a far different experience. He is posted to a remote village where he comes to know Chadians in a much more intimate way. Civil war breaks out. The American ambassador orders all Americans to evacuate. Charlene is baffled when Madison fails to show up. All Americans are gathering in Chad’s major cities to flee the country and Madison is a no-show. Where is he? Why isn’t he here for the departure? As the war worsens and the Americans load up a convoy of trucks to escape, Charlene has to decide if she can do anything to save the missing Madison before it’s too late.

    A Brief History of Easley

    R. Chad Stewart

    Easley has a rare combination of a quaint Main Street and a thriving industrial presence. The city was a series of small farms and open land until residents convinced officials to make the area a stop along the Atlanta and Richmond Air-Line Railroad after the Civil War. Access to the railroad and the popularity of cotton spurred an era of rapid growth and expansion, culminating in the dominance of the textile industry throughout most of the twentieth century. While cotton drove textiles in the area, advances in agriculture and manufacturing brought dozens of companies, placing Easley at the center of the state's biggest industrial area. Author Chad Stewart details the history of a city that moved from sleepy train stop to vibrant South Carolina city.

    The Minnesota Road Guide to Haunted Locations

    Chad Lewis

    Where to go in Minnesota to possibly sleep in a haunted bed & breakfast, hear ghostly wails in a theatre, go roller-skating with ghosts, encounter a haunted doll, hike a haunted trail, hear spirits playing music, have a drink in a haunted pub, see gravestones move on their own, and much, much more.

    Legendary Locals of Auburn

    Chad Gramling

    “Sweet Auburn! The loveliest village of the plain.” This line from an Oliver Goldsmith poem is believed to have inspired the naming of Auburn, Indiana. Known as “The Home of the Classics” in honor of the Auburn, Cord, and Duesenberg automobiles built by citizens of the city from the early 1900s through 1937, this classic theme runs deep within the people who shaped the very fabric of the community. These locals―like Martha “the Popcorn Lady” Falka, Glenn T. Rieke, Charles Eckhart, William McIntosh, Dr. Bonnell Souder, Irene Bisel, Rollie Muhn, John Martin Smith, and others―dedicated themselves to “Auburn Forever with Honest Endeavor.” They advanced a legacy first envisioned for the “loveliest village of the plain” and nurtured its vibrant heritage. Legendary Locals of Auburn explores the stories of these men and women and offers an insightful look into Auburn’s remarkable contributions to American culture.

    AVOID ALL TRAVEL; see also regional advisories.

    The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.

    Despite a strong military presence in Chad, there is a possibility of clashes between rebels and government troops. Tensions are especially high in the eastern provinces, where armed rebel groups are attempting to control the area. If you are contemplating travel to Chad despite the warning, you should check with local authorities or with the Embassy of Canada in Khartoum (Sudan) for the latest security and safety information before finalizing any travel plans.

    Civil unrest and violent incidents can occur throughout the country. Carry all necessary travel documents, including valid passports and visas, at all times. Monitor local news, avoid large crowds and demonstrations where political violence may occur and follow the advice of local authorities.

    Increased threat of attacks and kidnappings

    In 2013, the French military assisted the Malian government in efforts to repel armed rebels. Terrorist groups in the region declared their intention to increase attacks and kidnappings targeting Westerners. While the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali has been supporting the transitional authorities in stabilizing the region since July 2013, citizens of countries supporting the intervention are still at particular risk, but all travellers should exercise increased vigilance in the region.

    Northern Chad (see Advisory)

    Travel in northern Chad, especially in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti region, is considered dangerous. The presence of landmines has been reported along the border with Libya. Attempting to cross the border would be hazardous. Border closure can occur without notice.

    Western Chad (see Advisory)

    Contraband from Cameroon is frequently smuggled across the Chari River, which can result in armed intervention by Chadian customs and river police. Rural areas around Lake Chad are also subject to periodic violence.

    A state of emergency is in effect in the Nigerian state of Borno, which borders Chad. Instability in this province could spill over into Chad.

    Border with Sudan and the Central African Republic (see Advisory)

    In the border areas with Sudan and the Central African Republic, rebel groups are active and create an extremely insecure situation. Attacks have occurred in these areas and there is a serious threat of kidnapping against foreigners. The humanitarian situation in eastern Chad (including the regions of Biltine and Ouaddaï) is serious, given the ongoing potential for trans-border clashes and the presence of hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees who have fled the conflict in Darfur. Targeted attacks on humanitarian workers by bandits and armed militias have increased, and several local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have suspended or reduced operations. You should exercise extreme caution in and around the city of Abéché, where violent incidents have been reported. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR ) recommends travelling in convoys of at least two vehicles and avoiding all movements in the region after 6:00 p.m. There are live minefields in this region. Crossing the border anywhere in this area is extremely dangerous.

    N’Djamena (see Advisory)

    Avoid all non-essential travel to the capital city of N’Djamena. There is a risk of violence, kidnapping and serious crime in N’Djamena. Travellers entering or exiting the capital must go through security check points. If travel outside N'Djamena is necessary, a permit issued by the Ministry of Interior is required. The permit may take several days to be issued. Outside N’Djamena, telecommunication systems are very unreliable. Travellers with Thuraya satellite phones should register the phones with the Chadian authorities. You are advised to hire a local driver to avoid being the victim of mob justice in response to a road accident.

    Crime

    Pickpockets and purse snatchers are active in market and commercial areas. Do not show signs of affluence and leave valuables and personal belongings, including cash and airline tickets, in a hotel safe or other secure place. Dress conservatively and avoid walking alone, especially after dark. Burglary and vehicle theft increase during periods of political instability. Banditry is common. Foreigners are increasingly targeted, particularly at night.

    Road travel

    Road conditions are dangerous. Roads are poorly maintained and mostly unpaved, even in N’Djamena. Streets are poorly lit and road signs are often missing. Excessive speeds, erratic driving habits, lack of vehicle maintenance, roaming wildlife and livestock, cyclists, and pedestrians pose risks. You are advised not to travel between cities at night due to poor road infrastructure.

    Emergency services do not exist.

    Fuel is not always available in major cities and is very scarce in rural areas.

    You should travel in convoy outside N'Djamena, during daylight hours only and carry additional fuel, a spare tire and provisions.

    Keep windows closed and doors locked at all times. You should stop and cooperate at all police or military roadblocks. Proper identification should be readily available.

    Public transportation

    There is no operational train or bus network in Chad. Trucks and minibuses are not properly maintained and are often dangerous. They are not recommended for any intercity travel.

    Consult our Transportation FAQ in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

    Health

    Related Travel Health Notices
    Consult a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic preferably six weeks before you travel.
    Vaccines

    Routine Vaccines

    Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.

    Vaccines to Consider

    You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.

    Hepatitis A

    Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.

    Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.

    Influenza

    Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.

    Measles

    Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.
     

    Meningitis

    This country is in the African Meningitis Belt, an area where there are many cases of meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease (meningitis) is a serious and sometimes fatal infection of the tissue around the brain and the spinal cord. Travellers who may be at high risk should consider getting vaccinated. High-risk travellers include those living or working with the local population (e.g., health care workers), those travelling to crowded areas or taking part in large gatherings, or those travelling for a longer period of time.

    Polio

    There is a risk of polio in this country. Be sure that your vaccination against polio is up-to-date.

    Rabies

    Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).

    Typhoid

    Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives, or with weakened immune systems. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should consider getting vaccinated.

    Yellow Fever Vaccination

    Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.

    Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

    * It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
    Risk
    • There is a risk of yellow fever in this country.
    Country Entry Requirement*
    • Proof of vaccination is required if you are coming from a country where yellow fever occurs.
    Recommendation
    • Vaccination may be recommended depending on your itinerary.
    • Discuss travel plans, activities, and destinations with a health care provider.
    • Protect yourself from mosquito bites.
    Food/Water

    Food and Water-borne Diseases

    Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.

    In some areas in Central Africa, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in Central Africa. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!

    Cholera

    There have been cases of cholera reported in this country in the last year. Cholera is a bacterial disease that typically causes diarrhea. In severe cases it can lead to dehydration and even death.

    Most travellers are generally at low risk. Humanitarian workers and those visiting areas with limited access to safe food and water are at higher risk. Practise safe food and water precautions. Travellers at high risk should get vaccinated.

    Schistosomiasis

    Schistosomiasis is caused by blood flukes (tiny worms) spread to humans through contaminated water. The eggs of the worms can cause stomach illnesses like diarrhea and cramps or urinary problems. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Avoid swimming in contaminated water. There is no vaccine available for schistosomiasis.

    Travellers' diarrhea
    • Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
    • Risk of developing travellers’ diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
    • The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.

    Insects

    Insects and Illness

    In some areas in Central Africa, certain insects carry and spread diseases like African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis, Rift Valley feverWest Nile virus and yellow fever.

    Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.

    African trypanosomiasis

    African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is caused by a parasite spread through the bite of a tsetse fly. Tsetse fly bites are painful and if the disease is left untreated it is eventually fatal. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from bites especially in game parks and rural areas during the day. Avoid wearing bright or dark-coloured clothing as these colours attract tsetse flies. There is no vaccine available for this disease.

    Onchoceriasis

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is an eye and skin disease caused by a parasite spread through the bite of an infected female blackfly.  Onchocerciasis often leads to blindness if left untreated. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from blackfly bites, which are most common during the daytime and close to running water. There is no vaccine available for onchocerciasis although drug treatments exist.


    Malaria

    Malaria

    • There is a risk of malaria throughout the year in the whole country.
    • Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There is no vaccine against malaria.
    • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in well-screened air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet or pre-treating travel gear with insecticides.
    • See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss the benefits of taking antimalarial medication and to determine which one to take.

    Animals

    Animals and Illness

    Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Certain infections found in Central Africa, like rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.


    Person-to-Person

    Person-to-Person Infections

    Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are spread through blood and bodily fluids; practise safer sex.

    HIV

    HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). 

    Practise safe sex while travelling, and don’t share needles, razors, or other objects which could transmit infection.

    Remember that HIV can also be spread through the use of unsterile medical equipment during medical and dental procedures, tattooing, body piercing or acupuncture. Diseases can also be spread though blood transfusions and organ transplantation if the blood or organs are not screened for HIV or other blood-borne pathogens.

    Tuberculosis

    Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.

    For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.

    Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care provider.

    High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.


    Medical services and facilities

    Medical services and facilities

    Delays in receiving medical care outside N’Djamena should be expected, as medical facilities are extremely limited throughout most of the country.

    Three well-stocked clinics serving expatriates are available to travellers on an emergency basis in N’Djamena. They are expensive, and bills must be paid in cash and submitted to health insurance companies for reimbursement by the patient. French and Swiss doctors are available at the SOS International Clinic, the Clinique Medico Chirugicale and Europ Assistance.

     

    Keep in Mind...

    The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

    Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

    You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.

    Laws/illegal activities

    Criminal convictions for possession or trafficking of drugs can result in strict penalties and often lengthy prison sentences. Persons violating Chad's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Convicted offenders may expect jail sentences and fines.

    Homosexuality is not widely accepted and some homosexual activity is illegal.

    You are required to have a government permit for all photography. It is prohibited to photograph airports, military establishments and government buildings. Film and cameras may be confiscated without notice.

    An International Driving Permit is required.

    Dual citizenship

    Dual-nationality Chadian/Canadian citizens should be aware that they will be treated as Chadian if arrested, and access to a Canadian consular official may be extremely difficult. Consult our publication entitled Dual Citizenship: What You Need to Know for more information.

    Local sensitivities

    The majority of the population is Muslim. Common sense and discretion should be exercised in dress and behaviour. Respect religious and social traditions to avoid offending local sensitivities.

    Money

    The currency is the Central African Franc (CFA) which is also used in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. There are no import restrictions on local or foreign currencies, provided they are declared upon arrival. The export of local currency is prohibited and the export of foreign currency is limited to the amount declared upon arrival. Proof of entry of money must be processed through one of the local commercial banks.

    There are currently no automated banking machines (ABMs) in Chad. Credit cards are accepted only at the two major hotels in N'Djamena and at Air France, the major airline. Due to the potential for fraud and other criminal activity, use credit cards with caution. Small amounts of local currency can be negotiated on major credit cards from several banks. Canadian currency and Canadian dollar traveller's cheques are not widely accepted worldwide. It is recommended that traveller’s cheques be issued in euros, although U.S. dollars are accepted. Please ensure that you bring your receipt for the purchase of the traveller’s cheques, as it is required when you cash them.

    Climate

    The rainy season in the south lasts from May to October .The rains in central Chad occur from June to September. Many roads become impassable during the rainy season. The north receives little rain. You should keep informed of regional weather forecasts and plan accordingly, as rain barriers are closed during rainstorms and for three hours afterwards.