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Burkina Faso

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Burkina Faso, formerly Upper Volta, is a landlocked country in West Africa. It is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north, Niger to the east, Benin to the south east, Togo and Ghana to the south, and Côte d'Ivoire to the south west.

Regions

Cities

  • Ouagadougou, also known as Ouaga (pronounced "wa-ga"), is the capital city, located in the center of the country, in the area known as the Mossi Plateau.
  • Banfora
  • Bobo-Dioulasso — the country's second largest city, located in the southwest.
  • Dédougou
  • Gaoua — hardly a pleasant town, Gaoua is near the Ruins of Loropéni, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Koudougou
  • Ouahigouya
  • Fada N'Gourma - gate to the National Parks of the southeast.

Other destinations

  • Arli National Park
  • Kabore Tembi National Park
  • W National Park

Understand

Burkina Faso is one of the friendliest - and until recently, one of the safest - countries in all of Africa. Although it receives only a small number of tourists per year, it is an excellent destination for anyone interested in seeing a beautiful West African country and exploring African culture and music.

The name Burkina Faso means "Land of Honest People".

History

Until the end of the 19th century, the history of Burkina Faso was dominated by the empire-building Mossi. The French arrived and claimed the area in 1896, but Mossi resistance ended only with the capture of their capital Ouagadougou in 1901. The colony of Upper Volta was established in 1919, but it was dismembered and reconstituted several times until the present borders were recognized in 1947.

Independence from France came to Upper Volta, later renamed Burkina Faso, in 1960. From 1984 until 1987, it was under the leadership of Thomas Sankara, otherwise known as the Che Guevara of Africa. Sankara's regime proved to be very popular, as he averted much power and influence on the World Bank and IMF, encouraging worldwide aid to fight disease. Most of his programs were successful, though not successful enough to protect the country from political turmoil. He was ridiculed in the West for his authoritarian rule, banning free press and trade unions. In 1987, a coup led by Blaise Compaoré, a colleague of Sankara, toppled the regime and executed Sankara, citing deterioration of relations with foreign countries.

Since 1987, Blaise Compaoré has been leading the country. Things have not improved during his years in office, and many of Sankara's policies for stability and economic growth have been largely dismantled, making Burkina Faso one of the poorest countries in the world. Political unrest has worsened, and economic reforms remain very uneven.

People

Burkina Faso's 14.4 million people (2006) belong to two major West African cultural groups—the Voltaic and the Mande (whose common language is Dioula). The Voltaic Mossi make up about one-half of the population. The Mossi claim descent from warriors who migrated to present-day Burkina Faso from present-day Ghana and established an empire that lasted more than 800 years. Predominantly farmers, the Mossi kingdom is still led by the Mogho Naba, whose court is in Ouagadougou.

Burkina Faso is an ethnically integrated, secular state. Most of Burkina's people are concentrated in the south and centre of the country, sometimes exceeding 48 per square kilometre (125/sq mi). Several hundred thousand farm workers migrate south every year to Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. These flows of workers are obviously affected by external events; the September 2002 coup attempt in Cote d'Ivoire and the ensuing fighting there meant that hundreds of thousands of Burkinabé returned to Burkina Faso. A plurality of Burkinabé are nominally Muslim, but most also adhere to traditional African religions. The introduction of Islam to Burkina Faso was initially resisted by the Mossi rulers. Christians, both Roman Catholics and Protestants, comprise about 25% of the population, with their largest concentration in urban areas.

Few Burkinabé have had formal education. Schooling is, in theory, free and compulsory until the age of 16, but only about 54% of Burkina's primary school-age children are enrolled in primary school due to the relatively great expenses of school supplies and school fees and the opportunity costs of sending a child who could earn money for the family to school. The University of Ouagadougou, founded in 1974, was the country's first institution of higher education. The Polytechnical University in Bobo-Dioulasso was opened in 1995. The University of Koudougou was founded in 2005 to substitute for the former teachers' training school, Ecole Normale Superieure de Koudougou. There is still a very strong oral tradition of story-telling.

Economy

One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural resources, and a fragile soil. About 90% of the population is engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture, which is highly vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its development program in conjunction with international agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased. Maintenance of macroeconomic progress depends on continued low inflation, reduction in the trade deficit, and reforms designed to encourage private investment. Burkina's economy has suffered badly because of political troubles, and because it is so poor, about two thirds of the population are forced to go abroad to find jobs.

Holidays

  • January 1: New Year's Day
  • January 3: Anniversary of the 1966 coup d’état
  • March 8: Women's Day
  • August 15: Assumption
  • November 1: All Saints Day
  • December 11: Proclamation of the Republic
  • December 25: Christmas

Get in

Visa

A passport and a visa are required to enter Burkina Faso. You generally should obtain your visa in advance, although European Union citizens can obtain visas upon arrival at the airport (CFA10,000). French citizens now require to get a visa in advance at €70 for one entry. If you are not from the European Union, the cost of a 3-month, single entry visa is CFA28,300 and must be acquired in advance of your journey. The Burkina Faso embassy in Washington offers six-month, multiple-entry visas for USD100. US citizens only are eligible for a five-year, multiple-entry visa for USD100.

If coming by land, EU and US citizens are able to get a seven-day single entry visa for CFA10,000 at the border. As of July 2010, at the border with Ghana at Paga, they increased the price to CFA94,000, payable in cash (and the exchange rate offered at the border was 10-20% lower than market rates). No passport photos were required. They only were able to issue a 90-day visa. 2 passport photos and a yellow fever certificate are required (border crossing at Paga, in July 2010, did not ask for yellow fever certificate). Border police said that CFA10,000 visas were still available, but back in Accra. Border police also said that the 90-day visa was convertible at no cost to a 5 year visa for a US passport in Ouagadougou. Visas may be extended to 3 months multiple entry at the Bureau de Sureté de l'Etat which can be found in most major cities. To get the extension you should arrive before 09:00 (again with 2 passport photographs) and collect your passport again that afternoon.

Upon arrival, you may be asked to prove you've been vaccinated against Yellow Fever if you are travelling from within Africa. Failure to provide proof may result in either being forced to receive the vaccination at the airport, for a fee, or be refused entry into the country.

By plane

Flights are available through Abidjan, Brussels, Casablanca, Dakar, Niamey, Paris on the following carriers: Air Algérie, Air Burkina, Air France, Air Ivoire, Brussels Airlines, Royal Air Maroc. US flights : Brussels Airlines is part of 'Star Alliance' and Royal Air Maroc also offers some US flights departing from New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. Turkish Airlines has some of the best fares from Europe to Ouagadougou.

Air Burkina is the national carrier and offers a number of flights within West Africa and to Paris. Air Burkina is part of Celestair which also owns stakes in Compagnie Aerienne du Mali and newly created Uganda Airways. Planes are for the most part new and well maintained. Flights timing is unreliable but, once in the air, service is good. Like many African airlines, although flights may indicate only one destination, ie a direct flight from Ouagadougou, there are often multiple stops along the way to pick-up and drop-off passengers.

Upon arriving at the carousel at the Ouagadougou Airport to claim your luggage, a number of men in uniforms will want to take your luggage out for you. They will expect to receive about CFA500 (USD1) per bag (at least from an expat). Unfortunately, it is difficult for them to exchange anything other than a USD20 bill. Euros are a bit easier for them to change, but it is best if you bring exact change in CFA francs.

By train

There is a 517 km railroad stretch from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border. Count approx. 48hrs a train trip duration from Abidjan to Ouagadougou, and slightly less than 24hrs for the trip duration from Bouake to Banfora. In August 2007, the cost trip from Abidjan to Ouaga was CFA30,000, with CFA5,000 more for first class, which is not always available.

By car

Even wealthy Burkinabé who own cars do not use them to travel between major cities, but opt for buses instead. The major routes between Ouagadougou and other cities are in good condition; taxi drivers can be erratic.

By bus

You can also conveniently take the bus in and out of Burkina to and from the neighboring countries of Ghana, Mali, and Benin.

Get around

There are buses and vans (cars) to Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. There is a train service for the Abidjan-Banfora-Bobo-Ouaga route. Hitchhiking is not common. Rent a bike (~ CFA3000) or a moto (~ CFA6,000) to get around locally.

Talk

French is the official language and the lingua franca between ethnic groups; however, you will find out that, outside the big cities, most people do not speak much French. Many African languages of the Sudanic family are widely spoken. The most common language is Mooré. Start the day with some Moore (the language of the Mossi): yee-bay-goh ("good morning").

See also: Mooré phrasebook

See

Laongo is home to a variety of sculptures by local and international artists. The park's scattered pieces of granite have been transformed into beautiful works of art.

The Sindou Peaks in Banfora consists of a narrow chain of soft rock that over the years has been eroded into unusual rock formations.

Festivals

Burkina Faso is the home of music in West Africa.

  • Festival International de la Culture Hip Hop (International Festival of Hip Hop Culture)—Ouagadougou & Bobo-Dioulasso; October; Two weeks of Hip Hop performances
  • Festival Jazz (Jazz Festival)—Ouaga & Bobo; April/May; Features big names from around the continent
  • Festival des Masques et des Artes (FESTIMA; Arts & Masks Festival)—Dedougou; March of even-numbered years; Hundreds of troupes of mask dancers from across West Africa perform.
  • Festival Panafricain du Cinema (FESPACO;Panafrican Film Festival)—Ouaga; Feb/Mar of odd-numbered years; Africa's largest film festival held every other year brings stars and filmmakers from across the continent.
  • Semaine National de la Culture (National Culture Week)—Bobo; March/April; music, dance, theater, and masquerades fill the air this week in Bobo

Do

Starting in Gorom Gorom, you can take a camel ride out into the desert and even sleep out there on the sand. Guides can arrange this for you from Gorom Gorom and it can be expensive if you do not pick your guides carefully. Take warm clothes and good blankets if you plan to sleep in the desert. Women should bring pants to wear on camels because skirts (especially African pagnes) tend to fall open due to the shape of the saddle.

There is a beautiful hike alongside the waterfalls outside of Banfora. The admission price is one or two thousand francs. Be careful not to spend too much time in the water - tourists occasionally catch bilharzia, also known as Schistosomiasis, from swimming in the falls. The locals will tell you that swimming will not make you sick, but it can.

Also near Banfora is a lake (more of a pond, actually) where you can take a trip out on a pirogue to see the hippos. Do not expect too much. Often all you see of the hippos is ears sticking up out of the water. Remember, hippos are dangerous animals who do not like being bumped by pirogues that get too close, so be careful. This will cost two or three thousand francs per person.

A couple of hours West of Banfora is Sindou, with the Sindou peaks. These rock formations are somewhat like the North American hoodoos. They are needle-like peaks that have shaped by wind erosion. The Sindou peaks are a great spot for a short hike or a picnic. A guide is not necessary to find your way around but can tell you many fascinating facts about Senoufo culture and the time when the village, which is now at the base of the peaks, used to be located up on the plateau. Look out for the thorned plants on the plateau - the Senoufo imported them from Mali to use the thorns to make poisoned arrows. Admission is CFA1,000. You will need to give the guide a tip.

Buy fabric and get an African outfit made. In Ouagadougou, you will pay CFA3,750 for "three pagnes" of fabric. You can then take this to a tailor and have three items made - for women this is usually a shirt and skirt then a length of fabric left over to make a wrap-around skirt. Men can have shirts made. The going rate for a woman's outfit and skirt is CFA3,500. Fancier models and embroidery will cost extra, as much as CFA20,000 if you want elaborate embroidery.

See the crocodiles at one of the crocodile lakes outside of Ouaga, on the road to Bobo-Dioulasso.

Explore the mud mosque in Bobo-Dioulasso. An imam's son can serve as your guide. Remove your shoes at the entrance. Dress modestly. Women should be prepared to cover their heads, although this is not always requested. You will need to pay admission (CFA1,000), give a tip to the guide and give a tip to the kid who guards your shoes while you are inside.

Explore the elaborate mosques in Bani, near Dori on the road to Ouaga.

Buy

Money

The currency of the country is the West African CFA franc, denoted CFA (ISO currency code: XOF). It's also used by seven other West African countries. It is interchangeable at par with the Central African CFA franc (XAF), which is used by six countries. Both currencies are fixed at a rate of 1 euro = 655.957 CFA francs.

ATMs

  • In general, most bank machines will accept Master Card and Visa cards, with a PIN. Make sure you have a PIN for your credit card in order to access money from the bank machines.
  • Ecobank ATMs in Burkina Faso will let you withdraw cash with a Visa card or MasterCard.

Eat

Any run-of-the-mill Burkinabé restaurant will most certainly have one or all of the following:

Tô = a millet or corn flour based jello-like dish served with a sauce. Sauces commonly are okra-based (fr. "sauce gumbo" - tends to be on the viscous-side), peanut-based (fr. "sauce arachide"), baobab-leaf-based (not bad tasting, but very slimy), or sorrel-based (fr. "oseille", another green-leaf, a little sour).

You eat this dish by breaking off some tô with a spoon (or, if you want to go local and your hands are washed, use your finger - just remember to use always the right hand, as the left hand is considered "unclean" because it is used for bathroom purposes) and dipping it into the sauce. Definitely an acquired taste.

Foufou = a pizza dough-like ball of starch served with a sauce. Made by pounding boiled ignames (sort of a super-sized version of a yucca-potato hybrid, called Yams in English). The sauce is usually tomato-based. Eaten in the same manner as tô.

Ragout d'Igname = boiled igname in a tomato sauce. A beef and yam stew

Riz Gras = Rice cooked in tomato sauce and flavored stock, often with onion. Sometimes served with extra sauce on top, but not a given.

Riz Sauce (Rice and sauce) = Pretty self-explanatory. White rice usually served with a tomato or peanut sauce.

Spaghetti = Usually spaghetti is served au gras as opposed to spaghetti sauce.

Haricots verts = Green-beans, usually from a can, with tomato sauce

Petits pois = Green peas, usually from a can, with tomato sauce

Soupe = usually chicken (fr. "poulet"), guinea fowl (fr. "pintade") or fish (fr. "poisson")

Salade = a salad of lettuce, tomato, cucumber and onion with a mayonnaise-based dressing (mayo, vinegar, salt, pepper)

A Burkina specialty is "Poulet Telévisé" aka televised chicken, or roast chicken, since many locals say if you watch the roaster it is like watching TV!

Snacks:

  • Beignets = (mooré samsa) fried bean flour
  • Fried ignames, patate douce (sweet potato french fries)
  • Alloco = Bbq'd plantains
  • Brochettes = bbq'd meat sticks, or liver, or tripe, or intestines
  • Porc au four = baked greasy pork bits served with hot sauce (fr. "piment"), salt, and if you are lucky, mustard. Best enjoyed with a Flag beer (to make "champagne", add some tonic)
  • Gateau = fried dough. Comes in all sorts of varieties, best when fresh.

Drink

  • Bisap = hibiscus leaf cold sweet tea, sometimes enhanced with mint and/or ginger (XOF25-50)
  • Yamoku, or Gingembre = sweet ginger drink (XOF25-50)
  • Toédo, or Pain de singe = sweet and "smoothie-like" in texture. Made from baobab fruit.
  • Yoghurt = sweet dégué = yoghurt mixed with millet balls, sometimes couscous.
  • Dolo = millet beer.

Sleep

People go en repos from noon until around 15:00. Don't expect to get much done around this time. Formal businesses are often closed at this time as well.

Learn

Burkina is a great country if you are interested in learning West African drumming. Bobo-Dioulasso, the second largest city, is perhaps the best place to learn to drum.

Work

If you are interested in helping to save lives in Western Africa then Burkina Faso, hit by severe drought and poverty in the last decade, would be ideal for a charity-holiday. Medical staff are also sorely needed, so any volunteering doctors would be greeted warmly.

The Peace Corps is active in Burkina Faso and constitutes a large proportion of Americans living in the country.

Stay safe

Burkina Faso is one of the safest countries in West Africa. However, be aware of thieves in the big city. Violent assault is rare. Pickpockets and purse snatchers are something to watch out for in big cities, especially in Ouagadougou, where it is recommended not to carry a bag with you when at all possible. The common, cheap green taxis in the big city can sometimes host thieves. Hold on to your purse, and keep your money safely tucked away. If you want to carry around a camera or other item that requires a bag, it is often safer to put it in one of the ubiquitous black "sachets" (plastic bags) that you get when you purchase something in a store, so that potential thieves will assume there's nothing of great value inside.

You should always take precautions when traveling, but Burkina is a remarkably safe and respectful country. Women travelers rarely experience any problems. Foreigners, especially white foreigners, frequently attract significant attention, but the interest is mainly an attempt to sell you tourist items or overpriced goods. Indeed, the Burkinabé will show more patience and friendliness to the foreigner than to another Burkinabé, be it in a small village or in a big city.

There was a violent altercation between military and police in December 2006. Members from involved parties made it a point to advise foreigners on the street that they should find shelter and stay out of harm's way. The problem was resolved quickly and no foreigners came to any harm.

Stay healthy

Yellow fever vaccination is required.

Malaria is a serious problem, so be sure to begin taking prophylaxis prior to leaving for Burkina and continue taking it while there and, depending on the drug chosen, for some time after returning home.

Cholera vaccination may be required in the event of an outbreak.

Meningitis is also a problem, and vaccination is highly recommended.

Typhoid is common, as are other water and food-borne diseases such as E coli. Typhoid vaccination is recommended but it is not 100% effective so it is still important to take precautions.

The water is not safe to drink, especially outside the big cities where untreated well water is often the norm. Buy bottled water, and bring a water filter for emergency use if you're planning on spending time in any villages.

Respect

You will observe the Burkinabé exchange greetings in what appears to be a shared prayer or ritual. Literally, all they are saying is "good morning, how's the family, how's work, how's your health..." Greeting is a very important part of Burkinabé culture, and the only thing you really need to do here is to make an instant friend.

Ignoring someone and not greeting him or her, however, is taken far more seriously than in western cultures. It is virtually a slap in the face to ignore someone that has greeted you, or to not greet at all. Foreigners can probably get away with being "cold" and "unfriendly" in some settings, but it is a good idea to greet everyone you pass by.

Remember to always use your right hand when eating, greeting, offering gifts, paying for items, etc. This is true in both Muslim and Christian regions, as the left hand is used throughout the country in conjunction with water in place of toilet paper. The ubiquitous colored plastic teapots are filled with water and carried to the bathroom for "wiping."

Women are often targets of extra attention from men, but catcalls and unwanted advances are not appropriate in Burkina, so don't be afraid to refuse this attention. In general, people are very respectful to women and foreigners.

Connect

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Exercise a high degree of caution; see also regional advisories.

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.

The administrative regions of Nord and Sahel, as well as the regions bordering Niger (see Advisory)

The risk of kidnapping is substantial in these regions, and Westerners are a favourite target. Exercise caution at all times. If you are planning to visit these areas despite the risk, use varied and unpredictable routes and schedules when moving from one place to another. If possible, it is recommended to be accompanied by an armed security escort when undertaking road travel in this region. 

Increased threat of attacks and kidnappings

In 2013, the French military assisted the Malian government in efforts to repel armed rebels. Terrorist groups in the region declared their intention to increase attacks and kidnappings targeting Westerners. While the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali has been supporting the transitional authorities in stabilizing the region since July 2013, citizens of countries supporting the intervention are still at particular risk, but all travellers should exercise increased vigilance in the region.

Crime 

Purse snatching, muggings and theft from hotel rooms occur in major cities. In Ougadougou, the areas around the United Nations circle and the Central Market are often targeted by thieves. Ensure personal belongings, passport and other travel documents are secure at all times. Always carry a legally certified photocopy of your passport's identification page. Avoid showing signs of affluence and walking alone after dark. Petty crime occurs to a lesser degree elsewhere in the country. 

Demonstrations 

Demonstrations may occur and some have led to violence, looting, and clashes between police and demonstrators. Be aware that local curfews could be imposed at any time in all regions. Be vigilant and avoid all demonstrations and public gatherings as they can become violent without notice. Monitor local news and follow the advice of local authorities. 

Banditry 

Carjackings are often reported and can occur throughout the country.

Illegal roadblocks are regularly set up by armed bandits (“les coupeurs de routes”), who have been known to shoot in order to stop and rob vehicles. Roadblocks may be set up in any region, during daylight hours and after dark, and have been reported on both main and secondary roads. Remain vigilant at all times, undertake travel in convoys and avoid travelling after dusk.

Transportation

Driving in Burkina Faso can be hazardous. Roads are generally narrow, unpaved and full of potholes. There are few streetlights. Pedestrians, bicycles, carts and vehicles without headlights pose serious hazards. Many trucks transit the country at night. Travel after dark is not recommended. 

Public transportation is not safe. 

The only train line is between Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso. Trains run daily and are very crowded.

Consult our Transportation Safety page in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

Fraud 

See our Overseas Fraud page for more information on scams abroad. 

General safety information 

Telecommunications Office (PTT), which only accepts local currency. Collect calls cannot be made.

Emergency services

Dial 17 for police.

Health

Related Travel Health Notices
Consult a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic preferably six weeks before you travel.
Vaccines

Routine Vaccines

Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.

Vaccines to Consider

You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.

Influenza

Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.

Measles

Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.
 

Meningitis

This country is in the African Meningitis Belt, an area where there are many cases of meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease (meningitis) is a serious and sometimes fatal infection of the tissue around the brain and the spinal cord. Travellers who may be at high risk should consider getting vaccinated. High-risk travellers include those living or working with the local population (e.g., health care workers), those travelling to crowded areas or taking part in large gatherings, or those travelling for a longer period of time.

Polio

There is a risk of polio in this country. Be sure that your vaccination against polio is up-to-date.

Rabies

Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).

Typhoid

Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives, or with weakened immune systems. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should consider getting vaccinated.

Yellow Fever Vaccination

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
Risk
  • There is a risk of yellow fever in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
  • Proof of yellow fever vaccination is required for travellers from all countries.
Recommendation
  • Vaccination is recommended.
  • Discuss travel plans, activities, and destinations with a health care provider.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites.
Food/Water

Food and Water-borne Diseases

Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.

In some areas in West Africa, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in West Africa. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis is caused by blood flukes (tiny worms) spread to humans through contaminated water. The eggs of the worms can cause stomach illnesses like diarrhea and cramps or urinary problems. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Avoid swimming in contaminated water. There is no vaccine available for schistosomiasis.

Travellers' diarrhea
  • Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
  • Risk of developing travellers’ diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
  • The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.

Insects

Insects and Illness

In some areas in West Africa, certain insects carry and spread diseases like African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis, Rift Valley feverWest Nile virus and yellow fever.

Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.

Dengue fever
  • Dengue fever occurs in this country. Dengue fever is a viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms. In some cases it leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.  
  • Mosquitoes carrying dengue bite during the daytime. They breed in standing water and are often found in urban areas.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine available for dengue fever.

Malaria

Malaria

  • There is a risk of malaria throughout the year in the whole country.
  • Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There is no vaccine against malaria.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in well-screened air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet or pre-treating travel gear with insecticides.
  • See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss the benefits of taking antimalarial medication and to determine which one to take.

Animals

Animals and Illness

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Certain infections found in some areas in West Africa, like avian influenza and rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.


Person-to-Person

Person-to-Person Infections

Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are spread through blood and bodily fluids; practise safer sex.

HIV

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). 

Practise safe sex while travelling, and don’t share needles, razors, or other objects which could transmit infection.

Remember that HIV can also be spread through the use of unsterile medical equipment during medical and dental procedures, tattooing, body piercing or acupuncture. Diseases can also be spread though blood transfusions and organ transplantation if the blood or organs are not screened for HIV or other blood-borne pathogens.


Medical services and facilities

Medical services and facilities

Medical facilities and supplies are very limited outside the capital. Clinics and doctors often request cash payment. 

Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.

An International Driving Permit is recommended. 

Restricted activities 

A valid permit is required for all photography. These permits and the accompanying list of restrictions, such as military and government installations, are available from the Ministry of Transportation and Tourism in Ouagadougou

Dress and behaviour 

Dress conservatively, behave discreetly, and respect religious and social traditions to avoid offending local sensitivities. 

Money 

The currency is the African Financial Community franc, or CFA franc (XOF).

Burkina Faso is a cash-based economy. Euros are more widely accepted than currency in U.S. dollars. Credit cards are accepted at only a few establishments in the capital. Traveller’s cheques in euros are accepted and can be exchanged in banks.

Climate

The dry season extends from November to May, and the wet season from June to October. Brief but violent rain and winds occur during the wet season. Unpaved roads can become impassable. Dusty harmattan winds blow incessantly between December and February. 

Keep informed of regional weather forecasts and plan accordingly.