{{ message }}

Admin Page Edit

North Korea

North Korea (Korean: ?? Chos?n), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea or DPRK (??????????? Chos?n Minjuju?i Inmin Konghwaguk) is the world's most isolated country and has often been referred to as the "Hermit Kingdom". It's located in East Asia on the Korean Peninsula, which has been divided between North and South Korea since the 1950s. The country shares borders with China, Russia, and South Korea.

Travel provides one the opportunity to see one of the few remaining communist states in the world and the last frontier of the Cold War, where a society is dominated and run by a very strict, controlling, and totalitarian government that maintains a very tight grip over its people. As one of the few remaining communist states in the world that never adopted market-oriented reforms, the government is in firm control of everything in the country. They own the country's factories, farms, and even all the automobiles driven by its citizens.

Tourists may only travel to North Korea as part of a guided tour and they can expect to be under constant supervision and monitoring by the authorities. About 5,000 Western tourists visit North Korea every year. Most complete the journey safely, so long as they follow their ever-present guides. Incidents have occurred, and when they do, due process is hard to come by. The most likely consequence of any trouble with the authorities is a period of detention before deportation.

You should not travel to North Korea if you are not prepared to accept strict limitations on your freedom of expression, movement and behavior, or the risk of arbitrary, indefinite detention.



  • 1 Pyongyang (??) — the capital city and the former capital of Goguryeo during the Three Kingdoms period
  • 2 Chongjin (??) — Industrial city in the North East, very rarely visited by tourists
  • 3 Hamhung (??) — Northern city, also rarely on official travel itineraries
  • 4 Kaechon (??)
  • 5 Kaesong (??) — former capital during the Goryeo dynasty
  • 6 Nampho (??) — industrial centre and port on the western coast
  • 7 Rason (??) — Free trade zone on the Russian border, complete with casino
  • 8 Sinuiju (???) — bleak industrial city right on the border with China. Probably the easiest ways to look into the country from the outside
  • 9 Wonsan (??) — East coast port city slowly opening to tourists, and it has the first ski resort in the country

Other destinations

  • 1 Kumgangsan (???) — the scenic Diamond Mountains, accessible on tours from the South
  • 2 Myohyangsan (???) — this Mysterious Fragrant Mountain is one of the North's best hiking spots
  • 3 Baekdu Mountains (???) — the tallest mountain in Korea and the Kim dynasty's mythical birthplace
  • 4 Panmunjom (???) — the last outpost of the Cold War in the DMZ between South and North



Prehistory and founding of a nation

See also: Pre-modern Korea

Archaeological finds of prehistoric toolmaking on the Korean Peninsula date back to 70,000 BC with the first pottery found around 8000 BC. Comb-pattern pottery culture peaked around 3500-2000 BC.

Legend has it that Korea began with the founding of Gojoseon (also called Ancient Chosun) by the legendary Dangun in 2333 BC. Archeological and contemporaneous written records of Gojoseon as a kingdom date back to around 7th-4th century BC. Gojoseon was eventually defeated by the Chinese Han Dynasty in 108 BC and its territories were governed by four Chinese commanderies, but this did not last long. Natives of the peninsula and Manchuria soon reclaimed the territory, namely the Three Kingdoms of Korea, Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje. The Goguryeo Kingdom (or Koguryo) ruled the entire area of modern North Korea, as well as parts of Manchuria and the northern parts of modern South Korea. Buddhist and Confucian teachings were prominent in the Goguryeo Kingdom, which adopted Buddhism as the state religion in 372. Despite repeated attempts by China, namely the Sui Dynasty and later the Tang Dynasty, to conquer the Korean Peninsula, northern-based Goguryeo managed to repel them. Eventually, Goguryeo fell to a Silla-Tang alliance, which had earlier defeated Baekje. This unified Korea under the Silla dynasty. Even though Tang later invaded, Silla forces managed to drive them out, thus maintaining Korea's independence.

Unified Silla was replaced by the Goryeo (also called Koryo) dynasty, from which the modern name "Korea" derives. One highlight of the Goryeo dynasty was that in 1234 the world's first metal movable type was invented by a Korean named Choe Yun-ui (200 years before Gutenberg's printing press).

Buddhist learning spread during this time and the former Baekje and Goguryeo leaders were treated well. The kingdom saw relative peace until the 8th and 9th centuries when clan leaders led uprisings and toppled the Silla, establishing the Goryeo Dynasty from which the name "Korea" was derived by Westerners. During this period, the nation suffered Mongol invasions, which led to unrest and the eventual establishment of the Joseon Dynasty in 1392.

Joseon Dynasty

The Joseon Dynasty was one of the longest-running dynasties in the world (512 years), ruling from 1392 until 1910. King Sejong the Great's rule was especially celebrated, as he helped create the Korean script, choson'gul, which allowed even the commoners to become literate. He also expanded the nation's military power to drive out Japanese pirates and northern nomads and regain territories that had been lost. The Japanese invaded Korea under the leadership of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, though the Joseon Dynasty managed to drive them out with the support of China's Ming Dynasty, albeit with heavy losses in the Korean peninsula. In spite of its losses, the nation experienced about 200 years of peace, and its isolationist policies allowed it to further develop a uniquely Korean culture and identity.

Rapid modernisation stirred by the Second Industrial Revolution created tension between China and Japan as they felt the pressures of Western expansionism, each wanting to extend their influence over Korea. Ensuing wars between Japan, China and Russia led to increasing Japanese influence over the peninsula, resulting in Korea's status as a vassal state of Imperial China ending in 1895, and Japan annexing Korea outright in 1910, marking the end of the Joseon dynasty and Korean independence.

Japanese occupation and a divided Korea

See also: Japanese colonial empire, Pacific War, Korean War

Japan ruled the Korea as a colony until its defeat in World War II in 1945. During that period, the Japanese committed numerous atrocities including massacres, and forced many Korean women to become "comfort women", sex slaves in Japanese military brothels. Moreover, Japan instituted a cultural assimilation policy, forcing the Koreans to adopt Japanese names, and forbidding them from speaking the Korean language.

Japan was forced to give up control of all its colonies after is defeat in World War II in 1945, and the Allied Powers divided Korea along the 38th Parallel, with the Soviet Union occupying the northern half and the United States occupying the southern half. The divide was supposed to be temporary; however, the political power struggle between the two nations to gain influence over the unified Korea led each to establish governments within their newly created territories. North Korea was established as its own nation in 1948 with the support of the Soviet Union, following the Soviet communist model, with Kim Il-Sung as its leader, while at about the same time, Syngman Rhee established a capitalist regime with the support of the United States in the south.

Agitation between the North and South came to a head in 1950 when the North started the Korean War by attempting to reunify the country under its terms by launching an invasion. The Soviet Union and China fought alongside the North against the South, who were in turn backed by the United Nations (UN) forces led by the United States. The UN forces drove the North Korean forces all the way up to the Chinese border, whereupon Chinese reinforcements forced the UN forces to be driven back south. The war finally resulted in the signing of an armistice in 1953, largely maintaining the original borders set prior to the war. Because no peace treaty has been signed since the armistice, the nations of South Korea and North Korea are officially still at war.

Modern North Korea

With the nation in shambles after the war, Kim Il-Sung launched a campaign to unite the people by defaming the United States with Soviet support and purging the nation of dissidents and anyone thought to oppose him. He sided with China during the Sino-Soviet split on Communist philosophy because he disliked Khrushchev's reforms but began to praise the Soviet Union once again when China underwent its Cultural Revolution, straining relations with both neighbors. Consequently, he developed his own ideology, Juche ("self-reliance"), to create the sort of Communism he wanted for his nation. Throughout his life, Kim Il-Sung added to and clarified the Juche ideology in order to justify his governing decisions.

The Korean War not only divided the people, but it also divided the labor force. When the peninsula was united, North Korea had most of the nation's industries while South Korea was the agricultural center. This divide allowed North Korea to initially bounce back faster than the South in the rebuilding process. The Soviet Union then funded agricultural efforts in the North, in accordance with the Communist model. This system began to unravel in the late 1970s and 1980s as the Soviet system began to falter. With the end of Soviet aid following its dissolution in 1991, there was no way to continue to support the agricultural systems' needs for fuel, fertilizer and equipment. After so many years of government mismanagement, and the bad timing of severe flooding, the North's agricultural system collapsed in the mid-1990s, leading to widespread famine and death for countless North Koreans. The death of Kim Il-Sung in 1994 took place while the nation tried to deal with the crisis, slowing government response as the new leader, Kim Jong-Il, took his father's position.

The North finally allowed international relief agencies to assist, and the worst aspects of the famine were contained. However, the DPRK continues to rely heavily on international food aid to feed its population while at the same time continuing to expend resources on its songun, or "military first", policy, which Kim Jong-Il introduced and used in conjunction with his father's Juche ideology (which he "interpreted").

Today the DPRK maintains an army of about 1 million infantrymen, most stationed close to the DMZ which divides the two Koreas. North Korea's long-range missile development and research into nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and massive conventional armed forces are of major concern to the international community. In December 2002, Kim Jong-Il reneged on a 1994 "Agreed Framework" signed by his father which required the shut down of its nuclear reactors, expelling UN monitors and further raising fears that the nation would produce nuclear weapons. Missile testing was conducted in 1998, 2006 and April 2009. In October 2006 North Korea announced that it had conducted its first nuclear test. These actions have led to UN and other international sanctions.

Current negotiations, most notably the "Six-Party Talks" involving China, Russia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and the United States, are aimed at bringing about an end to the DPRK nuclear weapons program, in hopes that a peace treaty to officially end the Korean War may finally be agreed upon, paving the way for the opening of diplomatic ties between North Korea and the United States. Unfortunately, in March 2010, a South Korean ship was sunk near the 38th parallel, increasing tensions between North and South Korea. Although North Korea claims not to have attacked the ship, the blame has largely been placed on North Korea.

The death of Kim Jong-Il in late 2011 created a measure of uncertainty during the transfer of power to his son Kim Jong-Un; though the country has appeared to have stabilized since, considerable tensions have occurred intermittently.

Government and politics

North Korea is a totalitarian dictatorship. The government is led by the State Affairs Commission (SAC), which sets national policy and is directly responsible for the military. The supreme leader (Kim Jong-un) is chairman of the SAC, as well as head of the Workers' Party of Korea and several other positions. Atop the administrative branch of the government is the cabinet, which is headed by the premier (like a prime minister). The cabinet is appointed by the unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (SPA) which heads the legislative branch, although bills are drafted by the Party and the almost 700-person SPA almost always passes them without debate or modification. Moreover, it's in recess all but a few days a year, leaving most authority in the hands of the 15-person Presidium. The judiciary is headed by the Supreme Court, whose three justices are elected, partisan, and accountable to the SPA. The judiciary is not independent and does not have the power to overrule the legislative or executive branches of government, and interference from security forces is a widespread problem.


North Korea may be the most ethnically homogeneous nation on earth, with everyone being Korean save for a few hundred foreigners. These foreigners are mostly diplomatic or aid agency workers, along with a small population of Japanese who have Korean ancestry. Almost no South Koreans live in North Korea.

North Korean society is strongly divided and organised along a caste system known as Songbun. Membership of one of three main groups is determined not only by an individual's political, social and economic background, but also that of their family for the previous three generations. Education and professional opportunities are effectively defined by an individual's class.


The climate is generally classed as continental, with rainfall concentrated in summer. Summer months are warm, but winter temperatures can fall as low as -30°C. Late spring droughts are often followed by severe flooding. There are occasional typhoons during the early autumn.


Mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains are wide in the west and discontinuous in the east. The mountainous interior is both isolated and sparsely populated.


The Accusation, by Bandi. A collection of short stories, published abroad by a pseudonymous North Korean writer, that are highly critical of the Kim regime and full of piercing insight into its contradictions and cruelties. Uniquely among North Korean dissident literature, they were published with their author still living in the country.

Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea, Barbara Demick. An excellent book recounting the lives of six North Koreans who managed to defect and find their way to South Korea. Provides a compelling picture of the miseries and occasional beauty in the lives of ordinary North Koreans during the famine of the 1990s. ISBN 0385523912

Eyes of the Tailless Animals: Prison Memoirs of a North Korean Woman, by Soon Ok Lee. First-hand accounts of the prison system within North Korea

Escape from Camp 14: One Man's Remarkable Odyssey from North Korea to Freedom in the West, by Blaine Harden. The riveting story of Shin Dong-hyuk, one of the only known surviving escapees of a North Korean prison camp, and his perilous journey out of the country.

Without You There Is No Us, by Suki Kim. A fascinating piece of investigative journalism about teaching English as a foreigner in Pyongyang.

Get in

This country is arguably the most difficult country in the world to visit. Independent travel is not permitted and you are required to be escorted by a North Korean government guide at all times. Entry requirements change frequently without prior warning and the government has, on numerous occasions, closed off the country to foreign tourists.

Entering North Korea from China and Russia is unproblematic. Very few tourists enter North Korea from Russia, but it might prove to be a worthwhile experience. For obvious reasons, entry from South Korea is basically impossible, and inadvisable.


In accordance with North Korean law, everyone needs a visa to visit North Korea.

Tourists typically arrange a tourist visa through booking a tour with a travel agency that organises such tours. The travel agencies will usually deal with the visa on their behalf, although in some cases tourists are required to have a short telephone interview with the North Korean embassy in order to verify their identity and their job. In most cases the interview is conducted in a friendly manner so it is nothing to be worried about. Visas are often only confirmed on the day before the tour, but rarely will a tourist ever be rejected unless you show that you are of political status or a journalist.

North Korean tourists visas are often issued on a tourist card. If joining a tour group, group visas are often issued on separate sheets of papers containing all the members of the group, attached with a tourist card that bear the name of the tour leader. This visa itself is never held by the tourists, although tourists can ask to take a photo of their visa. In any case no stamp will be placed in the passport. The only way where a visa and entrance stamp will be stamped on the passport is when the visa is issued within a North Korean embassy in Europe.

Additional restrictions

Journalists or those suspected of being journalists require special permission, which is quite difficult to obtain. The North Koreans do not allow journalists to visit the country on tourist visas.

Citizens of Malaysia were being prevented from leaving North Korea after the March 2017 assassination of Kim Jong-Nam, where Malaysia wanted several North Korean diplomats and nationals for questioning. While restrictions for Malaysians leaving North Korea have now been lifted, the era of visa-free travel between these once relatively 'friendly' countries is over.

Citizens of South Korea are not permitted to enter North Korea unless they have permission from the governments of both the North, for entry, and the South from the Ministry of Unification (???). South Korean citizens may face a lengthy prison sentence under the National Security Act (?????) on their return if they do not obtain permission beforehand. South Korean citizens travelling to North Korea on a passport from a different country still risk prosecution.

Contrary to rumour, Israelis and Jewish citizens of other countries do not face any additional restrictions.


North Korea can only be visited by an organised tour, but this can be a large group or a party of one. Prices start from around $1,000/€700/£580 for a 5-day group tour including accommodation, meals and transport from Beijing, but can go up considerably if you want to travel around the country or "independently" (as your own one-person escorted group). Tour operators/travel agencies that organise their own tours to North Korea include:

  • America
    • Uri Tours Inc. - NYC, US (runs standard and customized tours to the DPRK; also an Air Koryo ticketing agent in the US)
  • Asia
    • East Asia
      • Asia Senses Travel Travel & Tour - Hanoi, Vietnam
      • DDCTS - Dandong, China
      • GLO Travel - Hong Kong - largest North Korean tour operator in Hong Kong, clients mostly are from Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore and Overseas Chinese communities. Also organises cultural exchanges, sports events, volunteering and TV programmes on North Korea.
      • INDPRK - Zhejiang, China
      • Juche Travel Services - UK, Beijing
      • Koryo Tours and Koryo Group - Beijing, Shanghai, Belgium, UK. Also organises school visits and sports exchanges and has co-produced 3 documentary films about North Korea. English tour only.
      • North Korea Travel - Sheyang, China
      • Young Pioneer Tours - Beijing, China. Offers very low budget tours.
    • South East Asia
      • Choson Exchange - Singapore, UK & USA. Not a tour agency, rather they provide training in business and entrepreneurship in North Korea to businesswomen, young entrepreneurs and researchers, and bring volunteer/tourists to help them to do so.
      • MBC Travel - Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Europe
    • Korea Konsult - Stockholm, Sweden
    • Korea Reisedienst - Hannover, Germany
    • Lupine Travel - Wigan, UK.
    • NoordKorea2GO - Amsterdam, Netherlands
    • Regent Holidays - Bristol, UK
    • Pyongyang Travel - Berlin, Germany (offers group tours, private tours and New Year's Tours to North Korea)
    • Viajes Pujol - Barcelona, Spain
    • VNC Asia Travel - Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Your Planet - Hilversum, Netherlands

No matter which company you decide to book with, all tours are run by the Korean International Travel Company (with the exception of a few, such as Choson Exchange and The Pyongyang Project who both work directly with various government ministries and domestic DPRK NGOs) and it will be their guides who show you around. The average number of tourists per group each company takes will vary considerably so you may want to ask about this before booking a trip.

Most people travelling to North Korea will travel through Beijing and you will probably pick up your visa from there, although some agents arrange their visas elsewhere beforehand though. The North Korean consulate building is separate from the main embassy building at Ritan Lu, and is round the corner at Fangcaodi Xijie. It's open M, W, F 09:30-11:30 & 14:00-17:30; and Tu, Th, Sa 09:30-11:30. Bring your travel permission, US$45 and two passport photos.

Your guides will take your passport and keep it during your stay in North Korea, or at least for the first couple of days of your tour, for "security reasons", or simply because your entry and exit dates must be registered, as noted by the black stamps on the back of your visa or passport. Make sure your passport looks decent and doesn't differ from the most common passports from your country.


Groups such as Choson Exchange bring volunteers (or tourists) to participate in teaching workshops on business and entrepreneurship to businesswomen, young entrepreneurs and researchers, after which volunteers tour relevant sites in North Korea. Such volunteers travel on an official visa, rather than a tourist visa.

  • Choson Exchange - Singapore, UK & USA. A social enterprise providing training in business and entrepreneurship in North Korea to businesswomen, young entrepreneurs and researchers, and bring volunteer/tourists to help them to do so.

Visiting the North Korean border area from South Korea

The Panmunjom Joint Security Area is the only place in North Korea that can be visited from the South by regular tourists. This is the jointly controlled truce village in the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) dividing the two Koreas. It has regular one-day bus tours from Seoul. Restrictions apply to specific nationalities.

Group bus tours to Kaesong and Kumgangsan in North Korea from the South are no longer available.

By plane

All international flights go through Pyongyang's Sunan International Airport (FNJ IATA). No other North Korean airport handles international flights. Only two commercial airlines fly to Sunan: Air Koryo, the national North Korean airline, and Air China. As of August 2013 neither Aeroflot nor China Southern Airlines fly to North Korea.

Air Koryo

North Korea's sole airline, Air Koryo, has scheduled flights from Beijing, which depart at 11:30 every Tuesday and Saturday, and return from Pyongyang at 09:00 on the same days. Air Koryo also flies to and from Shenyang every Wednesday and Saturday, and to Vladivostok every Tuesday morning. They also fly to Macau.

Air Koryo was the only 1-star (worst) airline on Skytrax's list, a distinction it held for many years. It had been banned in the EU due to concerns over safety. Although Air Koryo last experienced a fatal accident back in 1983, the airline only operates a handful of flights with its fleet of 10 aircraft. The main reason for flying Air Koryo is the experience: otherwise, it's probably better to fly Air China. The Air Koryo fleet consists entirely of Soviet or Russian-made aircraft, with the pride of their fleet being two Tupolev Tu-204s, which now usually handle the core Beijing–Pyongyang route as well as the Pyongyang-Shenyang route. Otherwise, you'll most likely end up on one of their Ilyushin IL-62-Ms (1979-1988 vintage), Tupolev Tu-154s or Tupolev Tu-134s.

Air China

Air China, a member of the Star Alliance, flies three times weekly from Beijing to Pyongyang using Boeing 737s. Air China is preferred by most to Air Koryo due to its far more modern fleet.

By train

Train K27/K28 connects Pyongyang to Beijing in China via Tianjin, Tangshan, Beidaihe, Shanhaiguan, Jinzhou, Shenyang, Benxi, Fenghuangcheng, Dandong and Sinuiju four times a week. There is only one class on the international train between Beijing and Pyongyang: soft sleeper. It can be booked at the station in Beijing, but reservations must be made several days in advance. Your tour agency will usually do this for you, unless you are travelling on work purposes. It has been increasingly difficult to book space on the Beijing–Pyongyang route, so confirm your tickets well in advance.

Once a week train K27/K28 also conveys direct sleeping cars from Moscow via China to Pyongyang and vice versa. The route is Moscow - Novosibirsk - Irkutsk - Chita - Harbin - Shenyang - Dandong - Shinuiju - Pyongyang. Departure from Moscow is every Friday evening, arrival at Pyongyang is one week later on Friday evening. Departure from Pyongyang is Saturday morning, arrival in Moscow is Friday afternoon.

Some agents (eg Lupine Travel) prefer to cross the border from Dandong in China to Sinuiju by minibus and then board a domestic North Korean train to Pyongyang. Usually you will be seated in a hard seat carriage with KPA soldiers and party workers travelling with their families. There is access to a restaurant car which stocks imported beers (Heineken) and soft drinks as well as some local beers and spirits. This train supposedly takes only 4 hours to Pyongyang but has been known to take 14. If travelling in winter be prepared for temperatures inside the carriages as low as -10°C.

There is also a direct rail link from Russia into North Korea. This route is the Rossiya Trans-Siberian train between Moscow and Vladivostock, with the Korea coaches detached at Ussuriysk. From there it's six hours to the border at Tumangan, with a five hour wait, then a 24-hour haul to Pyongyang. It runs weekly, but as a through-train only twice monthly (11th and 25th from Moscow), arriving Pyongyang 9 days later. This route used to be closed to westerners, but as of 2018 it's available, providing you've the correct visa and other paperwork.

By boat

There was an unscheduled cargo-passenger ship between Wonsan and Niigata, Japan. Only available for use by some Japanese and North Korean nationals, the boat service has been suspended indefinitely due to North Korea's reported nuclear testing; Japan has banned all North Korean ships from entering Japanese ports, and has banned North Koreans from entering the country. Be careful about getting too close to the North Korean border in a boat; many South Korean fishermen are still waiting to leave North Korea.

Besides the unscheduled ferry there is also a cruise ship that operates between the coast of Northeastern China, and Mt Kumgang. Jointly operated by China and North Korea, the cruise line uses a 40-year-old ship. The cruise trip is 22 hr long at each leg, and is 44 hr long in total but non-Chinese citizens are not permitted on the cruise to Mount Kumgang.

By bus

A bus is available from Dandong, China, across the Yalu River to Sinuiju. It's run by the "Dandong China Travel Company" but is only open to Chinese citizens. The bus drive from Dandong over the Sino-Korea Friendship Bridge (the same bridge over the Yalu river that the trains take).

Get around

All your transport needs will be dealt with by your tour company. Most of the time this means buses, although tour groups visiting remote sites (e.g. Paekdusan, Mount Chilbo) occasionally use chartered flights by Air Koryo. Wandering around on your own is not allowed, and you are required to have a guide to escort you at all times.

A carefully stage-managed one-station ride on the Pyongyang metro is included on the itinerary of most trips to Pyongyang, but use of any other form of local public transport is generally impossible. Some tours also include a train ride from Pyongyang to the border city of Sinuiju, in which you can stop over in Sinuiju for a 1-day tour, though this option is not available to US citizens.

If travelling in a small enough group it is also possible to organise a walk through some areas of Pyongyang with some travel agents (Koryo).


See also: Korean phrasebook

The official language is Korean. North Koreans are quite picky about referring to Korean as chos?n-mal (???), not hangugeo. The language is rather drastically different from any Western language in its grammar, and pronunciation is rather difficult for the English speaker to get right (though not tonal). It has various dialects; standard North Korean (??? munhwa?) is ostensibly based on the Pyong'an dialect spoken in Pyongyang, but in reality is still deeply rooted in the Seoul dialect which was the standard before Korea was split.

The Korean writing system is deceptively simple. Although it looks at first glance to be as complex as Chinese or Japanese, it is a unique and simple alphabetic writing system called chos?n'g?l by North Koreans, and hangul (?? hangeul) by the rest of the world, where letters are stacked up into blocks that represent syllables. It was designed by a committee and looks like simple lines, boxes and little circles, but it is remarkably consistent, logical and quick to pick up. A document from 1446 describing hangul said that "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; a stupid man can learn them in the space of ten days."

Essentially all sources for learning Korean abroad will teach South Korean, which does have slightly different usage: some letters have different names, the sorting order is different, and there are some minor differences in pronunciation and spelling.

Unlike South Korea, North Korea has abolished Chinese hanja characters and uses hangul characters exclusively.

North Korea uses its own unique system for romanization of Korean, which is mostly similar to the older McCune–Reischauer system. In South Korea and the rest of the world, Revised Romanization is more common.

Most guides will speak fairly decent English (some better than others) and will translate for you. Some guides can also speak Mandarin, German, Russian, Japanese and Spanish.

There is no law preventing citizens of the DPRK from interacting with tourists, although locals are often discouraged from speaking with foreigners and language can prove to be an additional barrier. A visit to the DPRK around their holidays may give you more of a chance to interact with the locals.

North Korea has its own sign language, which is not mutually intelligible with Korean Sign Language as used in South Korea; it's unclear if it's related to any other sign languages, or how widespread it is.


All tours are accompanied by a government minder, who will decide what you can and cannot see. From the moment you leave your hotel, expect to be accompanied by one or more minders. Besides ensuring that tourists do not stray outside of the designated tourist areas, their jobs include inspecting any photographs which they think do not portray North Korea or its government in a good light, and ordering photographers to delete them. It is generally advisable to listen to what your minder is saying, and agree with it.

It is always recommended that if you are uncertain about taking pictures anywhere, ask your guide, though allowances seem to vary wildly. You may get a guide that is relatively relaxed and will allow you to take pictures from a bus or within a city. On the other hand, you may get one that will strictly adhere to controlling where you take pictures restricting anything taken from a tour bus or of certain areas, like Pyongyang's city streets, in general. There is simply no way to tell until you are actually on a tour. If you think a particular photograph might be embarrassing to the DPRK in general, ask or simply don't risk taking it at all.

Photography of military personnel is also generally prohibited. Again, if in doubt, ask your guide. However, there are instances where it is impossible not to photograph certain sites without including a few military personnel within the picture such as at Mansudae (the monument site for the statues of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il) or at a local funfair. Reactions seem to vary between being ignored to curiosity, although you will be told where taking pictures is strictly prohibited (such as at certain areas of the DMZ), and the guards/soldiers there will react unfavourably to being photographed in general. Other areas where photographs are prohibited include the interior of the Friendship Exhibition, which displays gifts from around the world to Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il, and within the Kumsusan Memorial Palace. If you leave the country via train (to Beijing) your camera will likely be checked for unfavorable photos by the guards.

The majority of sightseeing consists of visits to various war memorials, monuments to the Great Leader and the Workers Party of Korea, and numerous museums (mostly war-related, like the statues and monuments). The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is a popular destination for most tour groups in North Korea.

Whilst you are in North Korea, the prevailing viewpoint places blame on the Americans for starting the Korean War; disagreeing with this position is likely to cause problems for both you and your guide, particularly as the two Koreas are still legally at war with only a cease-fire between them. Despite its misleading name, the DMZ is heavily guarded and dotted with minefields and other booby-traps. Under no circumstances should you stray from your group, or take any photographs of military installations. However, the "peace village" Panmunjom may be photographed, and boasts the world's third tallest flagpole.

Whilst on these guided tours, especially to the state museums and monuments, you will undoubtedly endure an ongoing barrage of propaganda, consisting largely of anecdotes about things that Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il did for their country. Some of these claims may seem bizarre and even amusing to the outsider; however, a straight face is generally advisable. It is generally safest to at least appear to take everything they say seriously, even if it contradicts everything you were ever taught in history class or defies even the most basic human reasoning.


So, with all this practical information being said, what are the places to go? A good part of the important attractions you'll be shown are in Pyongyang. There's the large Kim Il-sung Square, where the famously grand military parades take place. Even without the parades, though, it's an impressive square, and on it is the Grand People’s Study House. This gigantic library and learning centre is home to over 30 million books and a modern system of conveyor belts to get you the one you need. Also on the square are two museums, of which — the Korean National Art Gallery — is the more interesting one. The other great landmark of the nation's capital is its Triumphal Arch. Slightly bigger than its Parisian counterpart, it is in fact the largest arch of its kind in the world. Another landmark you'll be proudly shown are the large bronze statues of the Great Leader and Kim Jong-il. Respectfully join the locals in their serious undertakings to honour the statues, which are a key element of the devotion cult around the national leaders. For a better chance of some casual conversations with locals, try the pleasant Pyongyang zoo. Take a daytrip to the birthplace of the Great Leader in Mangyongdae and of course, visit the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun where both the previous Kims' embalmed bodies are on display.

No trip to North Korea is complete without an extensive glance at the uneasy and heavily fortified border stand-off at Panmunjeom, or the Joint Security Area. Not far from here is the town of Kaesong, with a lovely old town and the UNESCO-listed tomb of King Kongmin. For stunning natural sights, try reaching Kumgangsan, or the Diamond Mountains, where you'll find beautiful vistas, waterfalls, lakes and ancient Buddhist temples.


As mentioned above, there is very little to do beyond the watchful eye of your designated minders, with most recreational activity taking place within the confines of the tourist resorts. Bowling and karaoke are among the latest additions to its surprising plethora of recreational activities. The karaoke videos are often accompanied by dramatic historical footage of the Korean War, or goose-stepping People's Army soldiers.

North Korea has three amusement parks, two of which are abandoned due to mutual lack of interest and electricity. The Kaeson Youth Fair has now closed, taking the infamous "Roller Coaster of Death" along with it. Still visible are the shooting-galleries with backdrops of snarling American and Japanese soldiers; however, it is unlikely that your guide will let you venture into any abandoned areas. The one remaining amusement park contains some rides which are actually quite modern and non-lethal, at least by North Korean standards, and is about as worthy of a visit as everything else you'll see whilst in North Korea.

The nightlife in Pyongyang is remarkably safe and non-violent, compared to the capitals of other nations (except maybe Reykjavík in Iceland); in general, the civilians are not a threat. The plain-clothes secret police, however, may or may not be a threat, depending on what you say or do. The North Korean definition of popular music is at least two decades behind the rest of the world; expect an onslaught of 1980s hits from the West (some obviously are unauthorized copies, to judge by the quality), punctuated by the eerie caterwauling of Korean folk songs, and at least try to look enthusiastic about the whole scene.

Finally, power cuts may hit without warning in the middle of any activity. Whilst you might welcome this if the jukebox is starting to get to you, this is not a desirable outcome if you are in the middle of an amusement-park ride, particularly as these blackouts can last for hours at a time.

The Masikryong ski resort, North Korea's only ski resort, opened in winter 2013. Located near the western city of Wonsan, a visit to the resort may be included as part of a wider DPRK tour.



The currency is the North Korean won, denoted by the symbol ? (ISO code: KPW) and not typically available to foreigners, except some old North Korean won sold for souvenir. Black market exchange rates (especially in far northern Korea, near the Chinese border) may easily be 20 times the official rate, but importing or exporting Korean won is strictly forbidden. North Korean won is practically worthless outside the country but can make unique souvenirs.

Foreigners are expected to use euros or as an alternative Chinese renminbi, US dollars or Japanese yen. Currency handling is often bizarre, with a frequent lack of change and a number of rule-of-thumb conversions leading to highly unorthodox transactions, so be sure to bring lots of small change. On a typical tour most expenses such as hotel, transportation, and meals will have been paid in advance, and therefore your only expenses may be bottled water, souvenirs, snacks, drinks at the bars, laundry at the hotel and tips for your guides.

In any case, the only shops you will be likely allowed to visit are the state-run souvenir shops at your hotel and at the various tourist attractions. It is generally not possible to visit a real local shop which serves the local population, though you might get lucky asking your guide if he/she trusts you enough. Some tours include a visit to a department store.


There are numerous hard-currency only souvenir shops at tourist sites. Interesting souvenirs include propaganda books and videos, postcards and postage stamps. At some tourist sites (such as King Kongmin's tomb), you can purchase freshly finished paintings with your name and the artist's name at the bottom.

You can buy postcards and send them to people in any country except South Korea which apparently will not deliver them.

Literature is revered in North Korean society, in due large part to the fact that the government regularly promotes views that present them in a good light, i.e. propaganda. Writers in North Korea are held in high prestige. Sure, North Korean books may be full of views and perspectives promoting the government, but they will allow you to be further exposed to the world's most secretive, isolated country and better understand the thoughts and views of the government, the Workers' Party of Korea, Kim Il-Sung, Kim Jong-il, and Kim Jong-un. A book from North Korea would make a good souvenir from the country.

Some excellent paintings on silk or linen have been available in Kaesong directly from the artist. Haggling for better prices is not permitted but the prices are very low.


Most costs are included as part of your tour. Most sights have a shop associated with them where you can buy bottled water, souvenirs and snacks. These are reasonably priced. In September 2017, large bottles of local beer cost US$2 at the hotel bars in Pyongyang. €200 for one week should be enough to cover your costs of water, drinks at the bars, souvenirs and tips for the guides.


See also: Korean cuisine

As with most other aspects of visiting North Korea, catering is usually organized in advance as part of your tour. Vegetarians and people with food allergies or dislikes of common foods such as seafood or eggs will need to make arrangements in advance. A visit to a "real" local restaurant may be possible; enquire with your guide. Shortages of supplies, combined with the typical use of Korean cooking styles, mean that there is a relatively limited variety of food — and this can get wearying on tours of more than a few days.

There are a few Western food options now in Pyongyang and these restaurants can usually be visited if arranged with the guides in advance. They will usually require additional payment though, unless you have discussed this already with your tour operator, as the costs are not included in the per diem fee charged by the Korean Travel Company. There are two Italian restaurants (one on Kwangbok Street which is near the Korean circus where the pizza is great, and they have imported a pizza oven and all the ingredients so the quality is very high; and one near the USS Pueblo) and two burger restaurants (the more accessible is in the Youth Hotel). Both are inexpensive and do inject some flavor onto a generally lackluster eating scene, especially on long tours. Visit the Vienna coffee house, which is on the river side of Kim Jong Il square, for a good coffee similar to those common in Europe.


The local speciality is insam-ju, Korean vodka infused with ginseng roots.

Locally made Taedonggang beer is very good. The brewery was purchased from Ushers in the UK and physically moved to Pyongyang, and some of the soju are not bad either. Local alcohol is inexpensive; a 650 ml bottle of beer is €0.50. Imported beers, such as Heineken, are also available at similar prices. However do not get drunk and cause trouble. Toe the line and show respect, or you and your guide will face serious penalties.

It is advisable to stick to bottled water for drinking as the tap water is not always properly treated.


This is likely to be your principal expense while in North Korea. You may only stay at "designated tourist hotels", for which you will need to pay in hard currency. There may be discounts if you ask for lower class accommodation, if you are travelling as part of a group, or if it is low season (November – March). Costs for your tour, which will include accommodation, all sightseeing activities and meals, will range from US$70 to US$200 a day, depending on these factors.

Usually you pay for all your meals, hotel and Beijing–Pyongyang journey to your tour operator before you leave. One week in high season at a four-star hotel will then cost something between €1,300 and €1,600, depending on your tour operator, but might get as low as €800 for one week.


It's difficult to ascertain the full scope of the North Korean education system, since very few foreigners, if any, take advantage of learning opportunities in the country and get to experience life in the country. The vast majority of foreign students in North Korea are normally exchange students and typically come here to study Korean.

The Kim Il-Sung University is North Korea's most prestigious university and has exchange programmes with several universities in China, Russia, and Germany.

The government has set up a website where you can freely download books published in North Korea. This may allow you to learn something new about North Korea.

The Pyongyang Project arranges tours of North Korea with an academic focus, with the aim of participants learning about the country rather than just sightseeing.

Yanbian University, in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in north eastern China is closely affiliated with other universities in North Korea and can offer relevant courses for learning about North Korea.


If you are interested in teaching in North Korea, you may find success by contacting the North Korean UN Mission in New York, or contacting a North Korean university directly. Your odds of success are, however, quite low: there is only a small team of 4 English Language Instructors dealing with teaching and teacher training, with a Project Manager leading the team of three, placed in Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies and Kim Hyung Jik University of Education.

There is an opportunity to teach in the Pyongyang Summer Institute during summer time when it is opened to foreigners. It's voluntary, unpaid work, though.

Stay safe

At first, you may feel scared and intimidated by being in an authoritarian country like North Korea. You may even feel uneasy or outright anxious. As a tourist, you're not expected to know every single law and rule in North Korea. So long as you listen to your tour guide(s) and respect local customs, you have nothing to worry about.

North Korea is an authoritarian dictatorship and is generally considered to have the worst human rights record in the world. The authorities are very touchy, and you need to watch what you say and how you say it. Just do what the guides do, praise every stop on your tour, and remember the rule, "If you have nothing good to say, don't say anything at all."

The official policy is that you are not to wander around on your own. You are expected to get permission and/or have a guide accompany you if you leave your hotel alone. This will vary depending on what hotel you are in. The Yanggakdo Hotel is on an island in Pyongyang's middle of the Taedong River. Therefore you can walk around the area a little more freely than at the Koryo Hotel in the centre of town. You should always be friendly and courteous to your guides and driver, who will usually reciprocate by trusting you more and giving you more freedom.


When taking photographs, exercise restraint, caution and common sense. If you appear to be looking for negative images of North Korea, the guides will not be happy and will tell you to delete any questionable images. In particular, you should not take photos of anything depicting the military, including personnel, or anything showing the DPRK in a bad light.

Your photographic freedom can largely depend on the type of guides you are assigned and your rapport with them. In a best-case scenario, you can often take pictures without feeling as if you're trying to sneak them by anyone and without pressure capturing some truly unique images. If you are in an area prohibiting picture taking, you will also be informed of this, and it is best to follow your guide's direction. When in doubt, always ask. Your guide might even want to try out your camera and take a picture of you for your collection.

In a worst-case scenario, you can be expected to raise your camera at a reasonable speed, compose and take the picture, and lower the camera at a reasonable speed. Don't try to take pictures of anything that you have been told not to, such as military personnel or certain locales. This may call attention to yourself and the image you are trying to take and can result, whether justified or not, in your being told to delete the image.

Digital cameras are commonly inspected when leaving the country by train. A simple workaround is to leave a memory card with innocuous snaps in the camera and file away any cards with ideologically dubious content.

Korean nationals

If you are thought to be Korean by the authorities – such as having a Korean parent, having ties to North Korea, or being of Korean descent – you will be treated as a citizen of North Korea.

Possessing another passport will not exempt you from mandatory military service (applicable to both women and men) and will not grant you consular access and protection.

If you haven't completed mandatory military service (which usually lasts several years), or if you are thought to be a political dissident, you will not be allowed to leave the country.


Visitors have also been targeted for political reasons; in 2013, an 85-year-old American citizen was arrested, briefly incarcerated and expelled by the DPRK because of his military service during the Korean War.

Illegal substances

Drug trafficking and the consumption of narcotics can be punishable by death in North Korea. Although Marijuana is said to be found growing freely alongside the road in North Korea, its possession and consumption is illegal; in 2017, the Swedish Ambassador to North Korea stated that marijuana was illegal, and anyone caught using the drug could "expect no leniency whatsoever".

Religious activity

It is strongly recommended that you avoid bringing religious texts or performing any religious activity. In 2012, Kenneth Bae, an American Christian missionary, was arrested for his religious activities in North Korea and was sentenced to 15 years of hard labour (however, he was released nine months later). Another American, Jeffrey Fowle, was arrested for leaving a Bible at a North Korean nightclub and spent six months in a North Korean jail.

Emergency numbers

  • From a fixed-line phone: 119
  • From a mobile phone: 112

For medical emergencies in Pyongyang, dial 02 382-7688 locally.

Stay healthy

Drinking water in North Korea is apparently untreated and there are reports of foreigners being hospitalized in the DPRK after drinking the water; therefore, sticking to bottled water is highly recommended.

Medical facilities are clean although very outdated. If you fall ill then you might be better off going to China for medical treatment. Contact your embassy or consulate in North Korea (if your country has one) for assistance.


Despite the sharp political differences, North and South Koreans share a common culture; you may find the various respect tips in the South Korea article to be of help.

Tour conduct

As aforementioned, if you're not prepared to be supervised, accept strict limitations on your behaviour and movement, or be arbitrarily detained, you should not travel to North Korea. Travelling to North Korea is risky and not for everyone, even the most experienced travellers.

If you're concerned about your safety and want to experience North Korea, consider visiting the Korean Demilitarized Zone. The Korean Demilitarized Zone — which bridges the two Koreas and allows you to explore a small slice of North Korea — is, to a large extent, a much safer option.

Your tour guide in North Korea is your best friend. They will do their best to explain the rules and what is expected from you. If a guide tells you not to do something, listen to them. In Korean culture, disobeying and disrespecting authority figures are considered coarse manners. If you're not sure about something, ask. Also, remember that your tour guide is here to make your stay comfortable.

There's absolutely nothing wrong with talking to your guide about anything. Still, it would be best if you refrained from discussing sensitive subjects such as politics, economic systems, human rights, democracy, and your opinions on the country.

Any time you engage in unbecoming conduct, your guide will be blamed for being unable to control you, and they will be penalised for your misbehaviour. Always think before you act, and think before you speak; your actions can and will be reflected upon others, no matter how big or small, and tourists could face restrictions on what they can do in the country because of your behaviour. Whenever you feel tempted to do something, ask yourself, "How will my actions negatively impact myself and others?" Make that a rule during your stay, and keep that in mind at all times.

Consider giving small gifts like cigarettes, skin creams, and so on to your guides. This will garner respect from the guides, and depending on how well you conduct yourself; they may even take you to places and events in North Korea that they wouldn't usually go to.

Although there are many terrific photo opportunities in North Korea, the DPRK has stringent photography laws. This largely depends on what guide you've been assigned. If you're in doubt, ask. Do not take photographs of anything of strategic importance (i.e. places with soldiers/police officers, etc.), photographs that negatively portray the country, and things you've been told not to photograph. The North Korean authorities take these rules very seriously.

Sensitive issues

It is important to emphasize that the government of the DPRK — in particular the leaders Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il and Kim Jong-un — are, at least publicly, very highly revered in North Korean culture. While slavish devotion is not expected from tourists, verbal disrespect towards the Kim dynasty, the Workers' Party of Korea, and Juche is empathetically discouraged; it can get you into serious trouble with the zero-tolerance North Korean justice system.

Do not crumple, desecrate, inappropriately use, tamper with, or mishandle anything — this applies to newspapers, books, stamps, postcards, political posters, and money — bearing the names and images of the North Korean government, Kim Il-Sung, Kim Jong-Il, and Kim Jong-un. This is tantamount to treason in North Korea, for which you can be severely punished. Make it a point to treat such items well.

When discussing it with your guides, it is advisable to refer to North Korea as the DPRK. DPRK stands for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and is the official name for the country, reflecting their belief that the south (not capitalized) is occupied territory. You will also notice this referenced in their literature in the same way (i.e. as "south Korea"). When speaking Korean, South Korea should be referred to as "South Chosun" (???/???) instead of "Hanguk" (??/??).

As obvious as this may sound, do not attempt to praise or compliment South Korea, even in jest. You may easily attract unwanted attention for doing so. For similar reasons, being overly enthusiastic about the United States and Japan would also engender strong reactions.

Most, if not all, tour groups to the DPRK are asked to solemnly bow and lay flowers on one or two occasions in front of statues of Kim Il Sung when visiting monuments of national importance. Just be sure you always act respectfully around images of the two leaders. This includes taking respectful photos of any idea of them. When photographing statues, especially Mansudae, get the entire statue in the picture. Formal dress is also expected at important monuments such as Mansudae or visiting the Kumsusang Memorial Palace.


North Korea is officially atheist. The regime promotes a national philosophy of self-reliance called Juche (??) which some would categorize as a quasi-religion that pervades all aspects of life in the country. As a tourist, you will not be expected to observe this, although you must always be respectful towards symbols of Juche which are often the images of past and present leaders Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il and Kim Jong-un.

Other religions such as Christianity and Buddhism are vigorously suppressed in practice with severe punishment being given to followers. You should refrain from any religious discussions during your time in North Korea, and be aware that any form of religious proselytizing is dealt with very seriously by the regime, with foreign missionaries having previously been sentenced to life imprisonment in labor camps. With this in mind, be careful of performing even personal religious rituals or bringing religious items into the country and preferably do not do so at all.


By phone

For international calls to North Korea, the country code is +850. Some phone numbers (mostly faxes) can be called directly from abroad; most other calls will need to go through the international operator service on +850-2-18111.

International calling is generally possible via landlines in hotels, though it is expensive (€2 per minute as of Feb 2012) and all calls are likely recorded and monitored.

Local calls need elusive 10 chon coins when calling from call boxes, but can also be made from hotels and post offices.

Additionally, your phone calls may be heavily monitored, so you should be careful of what you talk about in phone calls that you make in North Korea.

Mobile phones

As of January 2013, you are allowed to carry a mobile phone from outside the country into North Korea. You will not be able to use your current SIM card in North Korea, however. The only network you are allowed to connect to is the local network, Koryolink, via one of their SIM cards. Your phone must be a 3G WCDMA phone which can connect to the 2100MHz 3G frequency band.

A 3G mobile phone network (Koryolink) was introduced in Pyongyang in 2008 and now covers the 42 largest cities. It is widely used by locals who can afford it and by long-staying foreigners who file an application. SIM cards and phones can be purchased at the International Communication Center, No.2 Pothonggang-dong in Pothonggang District, opposite the Pyongyang Indoor Stadium, as well as at Pyongyang airport and some hotels. As of 25 Feb 2013, 3G mobile internet via Koryolink is available to foreigners, although pricing is unknown. Bear in mind that these SIM cards will only let you call internationally and to a very small number of internationally-enabled phones in North Korea. There are three plans you can choose from for your SIM card:

  1. Purchase a prepaid SIM card for €50. This gives you the SIM card to keep indefinitely for return visits, and includes a small amount (less than €30) of calling credit.
  2. Rent a prepaid SIM card for two weeks for €50. This includes €30 of calling credit.
  3. Rent a prepaid SIM card for one month for €75. This includes €55 of calling credit.

Calling rates are as follows:

  • China and South-East Asia: €1.43 per minute.
  • Russia: €0.68 per minute.
  • France and Switzerland: €0.38 per minute.
  • U.K. and Germany: €1.58 per minute.

By Internet

Internet facilities are limited to a very few North Koreans with appropriate privileges to use it. For foreigners, most of the larger hotels have Internet access available, but this needs to be applied for some days in advance. Advise your tour operator or inviting party of your requirements well ahead of time so that access permission can be arranged. There are no public internet cafés or business centres with web access in the hotels. Mobile internet is available via Koryolink's 3G network (see above) using a local SIM card, but details about this are scarce. Also, even if you have Internet access, your traffic will probably be monitored. There is very little Internet connectivity in North Korea; the little that exists is routed through mainland China and risks heavy censorship by that country's Golden Shield Project, the "Great Firewall of China".


There is a growing diplomatic presence of foreign embassies in Pyongyang. Find out beforehand which country can assist you in case of an emergency, such as a medical condition or a police incident.

Sweden serves as the protecting power for American, Australian, and Canadian travellers in North Korea, so these visitors may be able to obtain limited consular services from the Swedish embassy in Pyongyang. American nationals are not allowed by the U.S. Department of State to visit North Korea, although if you must then it is still recommended to notify (by email) the Swedish embassy of your visit to North Korea, as well as to inform the U.S. embassy in Beijing, China, particularly if your trip to North Korea entails passing through China.

The British embassy offers consular services to Commonwealth citizens who do not have representation through other countries, except for Singaporeans and Tanzanians, whose governments have opted out of this arrangement.


Mass media is strictly and tightly controlled in North Korea and is heavily regulated by the North Korean government. The government forbids the consumption of all foreign media outlets and newspapers. You can expect to come across highly critical views of the United States, Japan, South Korea, and Western culture in North Korean media.

Putting this aside, exposing yourself to North Korean media is an excellent way to better understand how things are in the world's most secretive country, the views of the North Korean government, and what people are exposed to over here. Why not go ahead and explore?

  • The Pyongyang Times. The main English-language newspaper in North Korea. If you cannot get your hands on a physical copy of the newspaper, you can read the newspaper online. There is an entire section dedicated to that..  
  • Korean Central News Agency. The state news agency of North Korea. Available in Korean, Russian, English, Mandarin, Japanese, and Spanish. 


The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The purpose of this Travel Advice is to provide up-to-date information to enable you to make well-informed decisions.

Nuclear weapons development program

Tensions have increased in the region as a result of North Korea’s ongoing nuclear weapons development program. In April and December 2012, North Korea attempted to launch two missiles into orbit, and on February 12, 2013, performed a nuclear weapons test. Additional tests cannot be ruled out.

North Korea and South Korea

Relations between North Korea and South Korea remain tense. On March 11, 2013, North Korea issued a statement declaring that the Korean Armistice Agreement is invalid. While past threats made by the North to nullify this agreement have gone unfulfilled, this statement has raised tension in the region.

Border skirmishes with South Korean armed forces occur occasionally. The security situation could deteriorate suddenly. Due to very limited access to international media broadcasts in North Korea, you may be taken by surprise by events that could affect your security.


The crime rate is low. Petty crime occurs, especially at the airport in Pyongyang and in public markets. Ensure personal belongings, passports and other travel documents are secure at all times.


Travel within North Korea is severely restricted. Transportation is usually provided by local tour representatives or authorities. Traffic is usually minimal, and major highways are in good condition. Rural roads can be hazardous. Police checkpoints, usually located at the entry to towns, may require that travellers provide documentation before onward travel is permitted.

Consult our Transportation Safety page in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

General safety information

There is no resident Canadian government office in the country. Register with the Embassy of Canada in Seoul, South Korea, and with the Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang.

Canadian or Swedish authorities may encounter major difficulties and delays in obtaining consular access to you if you are detained, particularly outside of the capital, Pyongyang. The provision of consular access is solely at the discretion of the North Korean government. Knowledge of North Korean police and judicial systems is limited, which may affect our ability to provide assistance to you.

Tourist facilities are minimal and telecommunications are unreliable. Individual tourism can be arranged only through a handful of North Korean government-approved travel agencies. Travel must be authorized in advance by the government. Travellers are closely observed. Hotel rooms, telephones and fax machines are monitored. There are serious shortages of food, electricity and clean water.


Related Travel Health Notices
Consult a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic preferably six weeks before you travel.

Routine Vaccines

Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.

Vaccines to Consider

You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.


Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.

Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis is a viral infection that can cause swelling of the brain. It is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Risk is low for most travellers. Vaccination should be considered for those who may be exposed to mosquito bites (e.g., spending time outdoors in rural areas) while travelling in regions with risk of Japanese encephalitis.


Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.


Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).


Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives, or with weakened immune systems. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should consider getting vaccinated.

Yellow Fever Vaccination

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
  • There is no risk of yellow fever in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
  • Proof of yellow fever vaccination is required if you are coming from a country where yellow fever occurs.
  • Vaccination is not recommended.
  • Discuss travel plans, activities, and destinations with a health care provider.

Food and Water-borne Diseases

Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.

In some areas in East Asia, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in East Asia. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!

Travellers' diarrhea
  • Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
  • Risk of developing travellers’ diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
  • The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.


Insects and Illness

In some areas in Eastern Asia, certain insects carry and spread diseases like chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, malaria, and tick-borne encephalitis.

Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.



  • There is a risk of malaria in certain areas and/or during a certain time of year in this country.
  • Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There is no vaccine against malaria.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in well-screened, air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider sleeping under an insecticide-treated bed net or pre-treating travel gear with insecticides.
  • Antimalarial medication may be recommended depending on your itinerary and the time of year you are travelling. See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss your options.


Animals and Illness

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Some infections found in some areas in Eastern Asia, like avian influenza and rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.


Person-to-Person Infections

Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are spread through blood and bodily fluids; practise safer sex.


Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.

For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.

Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care provider.

High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.

Medical services and facilities

Medical services and facilities

Hospitals often lack heat and medicine, and suffer from frequent power outages. Immediate payment in cash is expected for treatment. A hospital staffed by English-speaking professionals is available to foreigners in the Munsudong district of Pyongyang. Medical evacuations are very difficult to arrange and are not guaranteed. You should take this into account prior to travel if you have an unstable medical condition. If you show symptoms of a serious communicable disease, you may be subject to strict quarantine conditions.

Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.


You must be accompanied by an official guide at all times. Instructions provided by the guide must be adhered to. Tourists are not permitted to drive.

International driving permits are not recognized. Foreigners residing in the country must obtain a licence by passing a local driving test.

Penalties for possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs are strict. Convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

Importation of satellite telephones and shortwave radios is prohibited. Such items are confiscated upon entry and usually returned upon departure. Authorities may seize any material that they deem to be pornographic, political or intended for religious proselytizing. Written material of any kind in the Korean language should not be brought into North Korea.

Involvement in politics and unsanctioned religious activity can result in detention.

Photography of airports, roads, bridges, seaports and rail stations is prohibited and may result in confiscation of equipment or detention. Seek permission from your tour guide before taking photographs.


Ensure that you are not seen to be critical of the country’s political system, current and former leaders Kim Jong Un, Kim Jong Il and Kim Il Sung, or members of their family.


The currency is North Korean won (KPW). Cash is the most recognized form of payment. The Euro is widely accepted; however, change is often unavailable. U.S. dollars and the Chinese renminbi are also accepted. Banking facilities are limited. Traveller’s cheques are not accepted. There are no automated banking machines. Some credit cards are accepted in some hotels if an advanced notice is given. Credit cards should be used with caution due to the potential for fraud and other criminal activity. Leave copies of your card numbers with a family member at home in case of emergency.


The rainy (monsoon) season extends from the end of June until August. Severe rainstorms can cause flooding and landslides. Typhoons occur in August and September, and can result in significant loss of life and extensive damage to infrastructure, as well as hamper the provision of essential services. Keep informed of regional weather forecasts, avoid disaster areas and follow the advice of local authorities.

See our Typhoons and monsoons page for more information.

Site issues? Contact Us