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The Principality of Liechtenstein (German: Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny, alpine, German-speaking country with a population of 38,000, doubly landlocked by Switzerland and Austria.

The principality enjoys a very high standard of living and is home to some incredibly beautiful mountain scenery. The principality's capital, Vaduz, is a major centre of commerce and international banking.


  • Vaduz — capital of Liechtenstein and the seat of government, despite never officially having been granted city status
  • Balzers — this town is home to a very beautiful church and castle
  • 3 Malbun — an area for skiing and snowboarding
  • Schaan — the largest populated area in the country
  • Triesen  — a small town south of Vaduz
  • Triesenberg  — an alpine town high in Liechtenstein's mountains
  • Ruggell  — a town in northern Liechtenstein where there is a nature reserve of rare plants and animals
  • Bendern  — where Liechtenstein was born in 1699
  • Nendeln  — where there are a ceramics works and Roman ruins
  • 10 Schellenberg  — a town with a museum of rural homes



What is now the Principality of Liechtenstein was for a long time the minor holdings of a powerful noble family from elsewhere. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire and later became part of the German Confederation.

In 1866 Liechtenstein changed its alignment from the by then-dissolved German Confederation to Austria-Hungary until the end of World War I, when the economic devastation and the breakdown of the dual monarchy caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the country's reputation as a "tax haven" has spurred outstanding economic growth. Outside of banking, Liechtenstein's main economic activities are the production of false teeth and tourism.

The Liechtensteinian flag is, by pure accident of history, identical to that of Haiti except for the emblems placed on both. During the 1936 Olympics, which were apparently the first time the two flags were displayed close to each other, this was discovered as Haitian civil flags at the time omitted the coat of arms and Liechtenstein added the crown as a symbol of its monarchy and to distinguish it from the civil flag of Haiti, should the two ever be displayed alongside each other.

Shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight have resulted in concerns about the use of the financial institutions for money laundering and tax evasion. However, the days of bringing suitcases of money into banks for deposit with no questions asked are over.

Liechtensteiners are also very proud of the fact that their nation has never been involved in a battle or military confrontation with an enemy state. They see their flag as a banner of peace.

For a European country, the aristocratic element in the constitution is rather strong and the prince/regent has a lot of powers both in theory and in reality (unlike say the British monarch). However, unlike almost all monarchies in the world there is a provision in the constitution that the prince has to resign and the monarchy has to be abandoned if a majority of the people so desire.


Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and living standards on a par with the urban areas of its large European neighbours. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes, the maximum tax rate is 20%, and easy incorporation rules have induced a large number of holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. Perhaps the most notable company from Liechtenstein is Hilti, not a bank, but a manufacturer of power tools (though they aren't made in Liechtenstein any longer). Liechtenstein is the world's leading producer of false teeth.

Liechtenstein participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses Swiss francs as its national currency interchangeably with the Liechtenstein frank. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been, since May 1995, a member of the European Economic Area, an organization serving as a bridge between the EFTA and the EU. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe. Liechtenstein has one of the highest personal income rates (GDP per capita) in the world, with the base rate of income tax at just 1.2%.


Liechtenstein is very mountainous, and is double-landlocked — one of only two countries in the world to be landlocked by landlocked countries (Uzbekistan is the other).

Most of the country's population lives in the long and wide Rhine Valley in the western third. Roads are mainly laid out in a north-south pattern following the valley as well. To the north, the main roads lead to the border with Austria, to the south, they enter Switzerland, and to the west across the river the bridges also cross into Switzerland. Most of the eastern border with Austria is not passable and is only accessible by foot as it is very mountainous, though the north of the country is well connected by road to Feldkirch in Austria. The country's highest point is the Grauspitz, which reaches 2,599 m. Among other European microstates, Liechtenstein is 2.5 times bigger than San Marino and 81 times bigger than Monaco.


Liechtenstein has a continental climate featuring cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain, making the country a moderately popular ski destination. Summers are cool to moderately warm, also often cloudy and humid.


See also: German phrasebook

The official language is German, but the main language in everyday use is an Alemannic dialect, that can be hard to understand even for native speakers of standard German. The Alemannic dialect group is also spoken in German-speaking Eastern Switzerland, the German state of Baden-Württemberg and the Austrian state of Vorarlberg. While the dialect is on the retreat in Germany and to some extent even in Austria, it is alive and well in Switzerland and Liechtenstein with some even fearing a local extinction of standard German due to lack of situations in which it is actually spoken.

Almost everyone can speak standard German, and English is also prevalent. French and Latin are also widely taught in the secondary public school system. Some shops have personnel who can address Asian tourists in their respective languages.

Get in

Entry requirements

Liechtenstein is a member of the Schengen Agreement.

  • There are normally no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. This includes most of the European Union and a few other countries.
  • There are usually identity checks before boarding international flights or boats. Sometimes there are temporary border controls at land borders.
  • A visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty.
  • Please see Travelling around the Schengen Area for more information on how the scheme works, which countries are members and what the requirements are for your nationality.

Liechtenstein is not a member of the EU. Therefore, travellers entering Liechtenstein from Austria (and vice versa) are subject to non-systematic customs controls. There have been no immigration controls since Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area on 19 December 2011.

Liechtenstein maintains a complete customs union with Switzerland and is represented by Switzerland in embassies internationally. Since 1923 there have been no border formalities needed for crossing between the two countries. In essence there is nothing more than a sign announcing your arrival in Switzerland or Liechtenstein (when you cross the Rhine or the land border), similar to the situation at smaller border crossings in many EU nations (e.g., Austria, Germany, France, Italy).

Measures to combat COVID-19 in Liechtenstein have been lifted. However, there may also be Swiss regulations to consider in regards to entry. For updates and the latest information, check Liechtenstein's tourism website and the Liechtenstein Government's COVID-19 portal (Website in German). (Jan 2023)

By plane

Liechtenstein has no airports. You can take a flight to Zürich Airport (ZRH IATA), 115 km from Liechtenstein. Although this is the only major airport near Liechtenstein, there are some limited services from Vienna to St. Gallen-Altenrhein Airport (53 km) by Austrian Arrows. There is also a private airport in Bad Ragaz, very close to the border. Another popular point of entry is through Friedrichshafen in Germany, which is served by low-cost airlines.

Liechtenstein has a heliport in the Southern Lowlands. This heliport has no passport control so helicopters are only allowed to go inside the Schengen Area. There is a heliport near the border at Feldkirch, Austria where passport control can be organised.

By train or bus

ÖBB, the Austrian federal railway company, runs a limited service from Buchs SG station in Switzerland, via Schaan-Vaduz station (near Schaan) to Feldkirch in Austria. Trains only run a few times a day, which makes buses generally more convenient.

Buses run every 15 minutes from the train station at Buchs (the main Swiss town on the Liechtenstein border) to Schaan and Vaduz. Tickets can be purchased on the bus for Fr. 3.40 and it only takes about 10 minutes to Schaan and another 5 to VaduzVaduz is the only European capital in a country that otherwise has a rail network not connected to any rail line and there are (as of 2017) no plans to change that.

If coming by rail from Switzerland, it may be quicker and cheaper to take the train as far as Sargans, from where it's possible to catch a bus (see below) straight to Vaduz. Consult the SBB timetable to find out what'll be quickest when you're travelling. There are lockers at the Sargans station so you can leave your luggage there.

The Liechtenstein Buses Route 12 runs from Sargans railway station to Buchs railway station via central Vaduz and Schaan railway station. It leaves from outside each station approximately every 20 minutes. The buses are yellow-green in colour. A fare to Vaduz is Fr. 5.80 from Sargens and Fr. 3.40 from Buchs. There are student prices as well (be sure to show your student ID). Consider getting a whole network day pass (Fr. 12) or week pass (Fr. 24) if you are making many journeys, though two single fares (e.g., from Sargans or Buchs to Vaduz and Vaduz onward to Feldkirch) cost less than a day pass.

From Feldkirch railway station in Austria, look for the distinctive off-yellow Liechtenstein Buses. Numbers 11 and 14 head straight to Vaduz and number 13 goes to Buchs railway station, by-passing Vaduz, so you'll have to change at the Schaan interchange.

By car

Liechtenstein has no highways, but the Swiss Autobahn A13/E34 runs along the Swiss side of the Rhine River, the border between Switzerland and Liechtenstein. There are several access points that cross the Rhine into Liechtenstein, the two that are most commonly used are the bridge crossing into the southern town of Balzers and the crossing into Vaduz. If you aren't coming from the west or have a Swiss vignette already, it may make sense to avoid Swiss highways as there is only a year vignette.

The alternative is to reach Liechtenstein via Austria. Coming from Germany, you most likely will also buy a vignette which is available in a 10 day variety that is much cheaper than the Swiss year version. You enter Liechtenstein directly from the north, via the Austrian city of Feldkirch which is also a tourist attraction.

Driving in Liechtenstein is relatively safe, but extra care should be taken on narrow and winding mountain roads. Speed traps are common, and for good reason as the roads are not made for high speeds.

Vaduz has several parking garages and places. As the city is not very large you can hardly make a poor choice. The prices don't differ that much.


Very easy from Feldkirch in Austria. In rush hour, lots of commuters head into the capital. A simple sign as you stand by the main road in Feldkirch should get you a lift within minutes.

Get around

By public transit

For a rural area of its size and wealth, Liechtenstein's bus system is decent and well patronized. The country's sole bus operator is Liemobil. Fares are reasonable, a 7-day unlimited use card costs Fr. 24.

By bike

Another cheap way to travel, weather permitting, is by bike. The roads in Liechtenstein are in excellent condition and many (in the Balzers-Schaan corridor) even offer bike lanes. Biking through the whole country (entering from Austria going all the way south through to Switzerland) takes only a few hours, but is worth every minute of the wonderful alpine scenery!

By car

Liechtenstein is a very sluggish place to drive. The majority of the roads are either uphill on extremely steep and winding stretches or in populated regions. If it has one, the automatic gearbox should be in sport setting there. The valley also has straighter roadways. The roads are frequently a little congested, particularly in the direction of Vaduz.

Speed restrictions are prominently displayed. Some sections of the road between cities are 80 km/h, but primarily within the 50 km/h zone. Because of how slowly the interior roads move, navigators frequently suggest taking the highway just across the border in Switzerland. There are no national highways in the nation.


Liechtenstein boasts a number of attractions that are of interest to visitors.

  • Balzers - Home to a beautiful church and a spectacular Gothic castle.
  • Vaduz - The capital is the main shopping area in the country, with many souvenir stores and assorted restaurants. The city is also home to a modest cathedral and the decade-old Liechtenstein Kunstmuseum. A ski museum is north of downtown.
  • 1 Schloss Vaduz  - This imposing and historic castle, home to the royal family, overlooks the city of Vaduz and is approachable on the main Vaduz-Triesenberg road (bus route 21). It is not open to the public, but it is possible to view it from quite close up.

It is possible to encounter the royal family at the Kunstmuseum, coming in and out of Schloss Vaduz or skiing during winter time. This is one benefit of such a small country. They are recognizable in their cars, which use their birth year for their licence plate number.


Liechtenstein offers great hiking, road biking, and mountain biking terrain. Skiing and snowboarding are also offered at a reasonable price at the country's small resort, Malbun, in comparison to the expensive lift prices in neighbouring Switzerland or Austria.

Get up early one morning and drive up the mountains on the east side of the river. From here you have an incredible view over Vaduz & Switzerland.

Liechtenstein is popular among philatelists and even has a postal museum. You can also get an entry stamp of Liechtenstein in your passport at the tourist centre and some souvenir shops (Fr. 3 or €3).



Liechtenstein uses the Swiss franc (CHF) as its currency. Many shops will also accept euros, but the exchange rate may not be very advantageous. You will get your change in francs. For a short visit you might not need francs at all, as even the parking garage accepts euros.


Costs in Liechtenstein are roughly equivalent to those in Switzerland and are therefore somewhat more expensive than other European countries.


You will find a few restaurants in the larger cities of Liechtenstein. There is also a McDonald's restaurant (opened in 1996; serves wine), which is very popular and is widely publicised by road signs throughout the country.

The many small bakeries are a great place to get a warm, fresh roll or pastry.


There is a small amount of wine that is produced in Liechtenstein that is available in supermarkets and tourist shops throughout the country. Expect to pay around Fr. 25 for an average bottle. The Prince owns his own vineyard in Vaduz, off the main road. Beer is also available for purchase that is made with malt from Liechtenstein, although most of the beer is brewed in Switzerland. A variety of other European wines, beers, and soft drinks are also available. There is now a brewery in Liechtenstein that produces a variety of beers; lagers including Helles (blonde) and Hefe Weizen (unfiltered wheat) styles are brewed.

There is also a one-man distillery in Triesen which makes liquors and schnapps from fruits. Tours on Saturdays.


There are a few hotels in Liechtenstein, but they tend to be on the expensive side. There is one youth hostel [1] located in Schaan, but it closes for the winter. You will probably be able to find cheaper accommodation in neighboring Feldkirch, Austria.

Camping Mittagspitz is the only full-service campsite in the Principality. It offers excellent facilities, a friendly reception and a fabulous reasonably priced restaurant. There are three other campgrounds in Liechtenstein: one in Bendern, one in Vaduz, and one in Triesen. All are pretty much full year round.

  • Gasthaus Krone, Dorf 36, 9488 Schellenberg (next to post office and bus-station), ? +423 373 1168. Very inexpensive rooms. Family run hotel and restaurant. 15 km away from Vaduz, regular (hourly) bus service to all parts of Liechtenstein. Fr. 60 (dbl). 


Liechtenstein's university offers courses only in technical sciences.

  • University of Liechtenstein (Universität Liechtenstein). (updated Feb 2023)


Finding work in Liechtenstein is difficult. A majority of non-nationals working in the Principality are Swiss, with a smaller number of Austrians and Germans. Liechtenstein is not a member of the European Union, the government has no obligation to let nationals of EU member states live in the country. Only very few residence permits are issued to Swiss and EU nationals. Nevertheless, if you're fluent in German it should not be too difficult to find a job since Liechtenstein is part of the EU Single Market. This means in practice that you don't need a permit to work in Liechtenstein but you will have to commute from Switzerland, Germany or Austria which don't have strict limits on residence permits for EFTA and EU-citizens.

Stay safe

Liechtenstein is easily one of the safest countries in the world, though it is not without its problems. The most common crime in Liechtenstein is of a non-violent nature, though the principality maintains a well-equipped police force which maintains a presence on the streets. In the late 1990s, the Liechtenstein Landespolizei launched a crackdown on prostitution in Vaduz. Considering the largest cities nearby are Innsbruck and Zürich, outside of Schaan and Vaduz, the whole place can seem very rural. Drunk drivers and winter road conditions may be your only "realistic" concern. Speed limits are strictly enforced by speed cameras, which can lead to high fines. Don't speed, enjoy the scenery instead.

The country's beautiful scenery is also very dangerous. Cases of hikers finding themselves in difficulty are very common, and extreme care should be taken when leaving the well-marked trails. Follow local advice, read local weather forecasts (newspapers in the principality print individual forecasts for the different cities in Liechtenstein, which is beneficial because the difference in altitude often cause different weather conditions), and ensure that you have the correct equipment before setting out.

Stay healthy

There are excellent medical facilities in Liechtenstein, but it is more likely that you would be transferred to a hospital in Switzerland should you require medical attention. If you are an Austrian or EU citizen you may want to seek medical attention in next-door Feldkirch, Austria.

Tap water is safe to drink.


The Principality of Liechtenstein has existed for centuries as an independent state and this should be remembered. Liechtensteiners are very proud of their national identity and would take offence at being wrongly labelled "German", "Austrian" or "Swiss".

Remember that this is a traditional Catholic country. On Sundays, the streets are almost dead except for the tourists and the tourist shops.

The Prince of Liechtenstein and the Monarchy are well respected in Liechtenstein. Bear that in mind when conversing with the locals.


As of Sept 2021, the country has 4G from all Swiss carriers, but 5G has not yet arrived. The Austrian signal doesn't reach here because of the mountains. Wifi is widely available in public places.

Go next

From Liechtenstein, going to the picturesque Austrian city of Feldkirch is a natural choice. The closest larger city of Switzerland is St. Gallen with its monasterial complex.

Liechtenstein can be seen as part of the German-Swiss-Austrian Lake Constance with many wonderful destinations.

Exercise normal security precautions

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The purpose of this Travel Advice is to provide up-to-date information to enable you to make well-informed decisions.


The crime rate is low. Petty crime, such as pickpocketing and purse snatching, occurs, especially during special events and in busy tourist areas. Exercise caution on trains, especially on overnight trips to neighbouring countries.

Mountain activities

If you intend to do mountaineering or ski touring:

a) never practice these activities alone;

b) always hire an experienced guide from a reputable company;

c) buy travel health insurance that includes helicopter rescue and medical evacuation;

d) ensure you are in top physical condition;

e) advise a family member or friend of your itinerary;

f) know the symptoms of acute altitude sickness, which can be fatal;

g) register with the Embassy of Canada in Switzerland; and

h) obtain detailed information on trekking routes or ski slopes before setting out.

Special avalanche beacons can be purchased or rented to help searchers locate buried victims.

Road travel

Winter driving can be hazardous. Roads are mountainous, winding, and not always plowed. Snow chains are recommended. In the event of an accident, motorists should make an official report to police.

Public transportation

Public transportation is excellent.

The postbus is an inexpensive and reliable way to travel within the country. Buses to Vaduz are available from the Swiss border towns of Buchs and Sargans, and from the Austrian border town of Feldkirch.

The train from Zurich to Vienna stops in Feldkirch.

There is no international airport. The closest one is approximately 130 kilometres away, in Zurich, Switzerland.

Consult our Transportation Safety page in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

General safety information

Exercise normal safety precautions. Ensure that your personal belongings, passports and other travel documents are secure at all times.

Emergency services

Dial 117 to reach police, 144 for ambulance, 118 for firefighters and 140 for roadside assistance.


Related Travel Health Notices
Consult a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic preferably six weeks before you travel.

Routine Vaccines

Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.

Vaccines to Consider

You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.


Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.


Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.


Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).

Yellow Fever Vaccination

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
  • There is no risk of yellow fever in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
  • Proof of vaccination is not required to enter this country.
  • Vaccination is not recommended.

Food and Water-borne Diseases

Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.

Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in Western Europe. When in doubt, remember…boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!


Insects and Illness

In some areas in Western Europe, certain insects carry and spread diseases like Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis, and West Nile virus.

Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.



There is no risk of malaria in this country.


Animals and Illness

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Certain infections found in some areas in Western Europe, like rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.


Person-to-Person Infections

Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are spread through blood and bodily fluids; practise safer sex.

Medical services and facilities

Medical services and facilities

The standard of medical care is high. Health-care costs are considerably more expensive than in Canada, and immediate cash payment is required if you have no medical insurance.

Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.

Canada and Liechtenstein are signatories to the European Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons. This enables a Canadian imprisoned in Liechtenstein to request a transfer to a Canadian prison to complete a sentence. The transfer requires the agreement of both Canadian and Liechtenstein authorities.

Driving laws

You can drive with a Canadian driver's licence in Liechtenstein, but an International Driving Permit is recommended in order to meet the requirements of some car rental agencies.


The currency of Lichtenstein is the Swiss franc (CHF). Automated banking machines (ABMs) are known as Bancomat.

When crossing one of the external border control points of the European Union (EU), you must make a declaration to customs upon entry or exit if you have at least €10,000 or the equivalent in other currencies. The sum can be in cash, cheques, money orders, traveller’s cheques or any other convertible assets. This does not apply if you are travelling within the EU or in transit to a non-EU country. For more information on the EU legislation and links to EU countries’ sites, visit the web page of the European Commission on cash controls.


Avalanches present a risk. The weather in mountainous areas can be unpredictable.

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