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InterContinental Lagos
InterContinental Lagos - dream vacation

Kofo Abayomi Street - Plot 52Lagos

Four Points by Sheraton Lagos
Four Points by Sheraton Lagos - dream vacation

Plot 9/10, Block 2, Oniru Chieftaincy EstateLagos

Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel Lagos
Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel Lagos - dream vacation

1A Ozumba Mbadiwe Avenue, Victoria IslandLagos

Ibis Lagos Airport
Ibis Lagos Airport - dream vacation

Murtala Mohamed Intl Airport Road Ajao EstateLagos

Welcome Centre Hotel
Welcome Centre Hotel - dream vacation

70 International Airport Road IkejaLagos

Nigeria (Hausa: Najeriya, Igbo: Naíjíríà, Nigerian Pidgin: Naijá, Tyap: Naijeriya, Yoruba: Nàìjíríà) is a large country in equatorial West Africa. Often regarded as the "Giant of Africa", Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, with about 216 million people in 2022.

Rich in diversity and landscapes, the country is home to more than 250 ethnic groups and 500 languages. The Hausa are the largest ethnic group, who make up more than 30% of the population.

Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Muslims (who are mostly found in the north and make up between 50-53% of the population) and Christians (who are mostly found in the south). The majority of Nigerian Muslims are Sunni Muslims, and the majority of Nigerian Christians are Protestants. Nigeria has the fifth largest Muslim population in the world, and the sixth largest Christian population in the world.

Nigeria does have its fair share of political and social problems, but don't let that deter you; the country is endowed with a vibrant youth population who have continued to bring glory to the country in various spheres of human endeavours. The entertainment industry in Africa can not be made mention of without referencing 'Nollywood and Afrobeat'; Nigeria's movie industry and popular genre of music respectively. The country is richly blessed with a plethora of appealing tourist attractions, incredibly friendly, jovial, and sociable people, and delicious food (especially the famous West African delicacy, Jollof Rice), and travel provides you the chance to experience and explore one of the most fascinatingly diverse countries on the planet. There's lots to do and see in Nigeria.



  • Abuja — the capital, with beautiful rolling terrain and modern Nigerian architecture
  • Benin City — city of the Edo people and rich cultural state
  • Calabar — oil region, with the world's highest concentration of butterflies in the surrounding regions
  • Enugu — the coal city
  • Ibadan — geographically the largest city in Africa
  • Kano — important Hausa city, commercial hub of the north
  • Lagos — second most populous city in Africa, former colonial capital and huge commercial hub, economic capital of Nigeria
  • 8 Osogbo — home of the Sacred Grove of Osun, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Port Harcourt — capital of Rivers State and largest city in the oil-rich region, primarily belonging to the Ikwerre

Other destinations

  • 1 Agbokim Waterfalls — a seven-part waterfalls in an area of tropical rainforest.
  • 2 Chad Basin National Park — inside the old Kanem-Borno Empire (present-day Borno and the Yobe states).
  • 3 Cross River National Park — primary moist tropical rainforests in the north and central parts, with mangrove swamps on the coastal zones.
  • 4 Gashaka Gumti National Park — Nigeria’s largest national park, near the border with Cameroon
  • 5 Kainji National Park — a protected savannah in North Central Nigeria
  • 6 Kamuku National Park — protects typical Savannah vegetation with easy viewing of wildlife and landscape
  • 7 Okomu National Park — part of a rainforest ecosystem that is the habitat for many vulnerable species of flora and fauna.
  • 8 Old Oyo National Park – named after the Oyo Empire this large park combines archaeological, cultural and historical aspects.
  • 9 Yankari National Park — the largest wildlife park in Nigeria is home to several natural warm springs.



The pre-colonial era

The Nok culture of northern Nigeria flourished between 1000 BC and 500 AD producing life-sized terracotta figures which are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Tiv culture in the north central region of Nigeria dates to 6 BC. Some of the famous bronze terracotta sculpture heads from this culture have been shown around the world.

In the northern part of the country, Kano and Katsina have recorded history which dates back to around 999.

The kingdoms of If? and Oyo in the western block of Nigeria became prominent about 700–900 and 1400 respectively. The Yoruba mythology believes that Ile-Ife is the source of the human race and that it predates any other civilization. Another prominent kingdom in south western Nigeria was the Kingdom of Benin whose power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. Their dominance reached as far as the well known city of Eko, later named Lagos by the Portuguese. Benin City, the capital of the Kingdom of Benin, grew into one of the most impressive cities in pre-colonial Africa, with its city walls said to be four times the length of the Great Wall of China. However, little of its former glory remains as it was razed to the ground during the British invasion in 1897, with only one building surviving the invasion. Its artworks were looted by the British and can now be seen in the British Museum and various museums in Europe and the United States.

In southeastern Nigeria the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people flourished from around the 10th century until 1911 and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture.

In northeastern Nigeria, the Kanem Empire ruled from the 8th century to 1376 and was succeeded by the Bornu Empire, which was a powerful Islamic monarchy until it was defeated by the Fulani in the early 19th century.

The first Hausa kingdom was ruled by a queen, Amina, in the 11th century. Hausa kingdoms, based in what's now northern Nigeria, flourished from the 15th to 18th centuries, before eventually being defeated by the Fulani, who proclaimed the Sokoto Caliphate in 1809. The Sokoto Caliphate ruled for less than 100 years before being abolished by the British.

Although the Bornu Empire, Sokoto Caliphate and Kingdom of Benin were eventually absorbed into British Nigeria, the descendants of the rulers retained their titles and influence through the colonial period and maintain them to this day.

Colonial era

Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin trade in Nigeria, and called the main port Lagos after the Portuguese town of Lagos, in Algarve. This name stuck on with more European trade with the region. The Europeans traded with the ethnicities of the coast and also established a trade in slaves which affected many Nigerian ethnicities. Following the Napoleonic Wars, the British expanded trade with the Nigerian interior.

In 1885 British claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition and in the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered. In 1900 the company's territory came under the control of the British government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria. On January 1, 1901 Nigeria became a British protectorate (northern and southern protectorates) and part of the British Empire. In 1914 the northern protectorate and the southern protectorate under the colonial rule were merged forming one single entity named "Nigeria". meaning: Niger [river Niger] area. The name "Nigeria" was given by the wife of the British Governor-General in charge of the country - Sir Lord Lugard.

Following World War II, in response to the growth of Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence, successive constitutions legislated by the British Government moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis. By the middle of the 20th century, the great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa.


On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained its independence from the United Kingdom. In 1961, the neighbouring British Cameroons was split into two, with Northern Cameroons becoming part of Nigeria, and Southern Cameroons becoming part of Cameroon. As was the habit of colonialists during that era, no attention was paid to the fact that the "protectorates" suddenly and quite chaotically merged hundreds of distinct and autonomous ethnicities, or to the fact that some communities were ripped apart by the sudden construction of boundaries that never existed before. There was never a truly developed sense of singular Nigerian identity. In part, it was this disequilibrium which set the stage in 1966 for several successive military coups.

The Northern coup, which was mostly motivated by ethnic and religious reasons, was a bloodbath of both military officers and civilians, especially those of Igbo extraction. The violence against the Igbo increased their desire for autonomy and protection from the military's wrath. By May 1967, the Eastern Region had declared itself an independent state called the Republic of Biafra and the 30-month Nigerian Civil War began. More than one million people died, many of them starving to death before Biafra was defeated.

During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria joined OPEC and billions of dollars generated by production in the oil-rich Niger Delta flowed into the coffers of the Nigerian state. However, increasing corruption and graft at all levels of government squandered most of these earnings. Nigeria re-achieved democracy in 1999 and although the elections which brought Obasanjo to power in 1999 and again in 2003 were condemned as unfree and unfair, Nigeria has shown marked improvements in attempts to tackle government corruption and to hasten development. Ethnic violence over the lack of profit-sharing with residents of the oil-producing Niger Delta region and inadequate infrastructures are some of the current issues in the country, which is the top oil-producing country in Africa.


Varies; equatorial in the south, tropical in the centre, arid in the north. Natural hazards include periodic droughts and flooding. Tornadoes and hurricanes are rare because they typically are weak at this stage and travel west of the Atlantic.


Southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in the southeast, plains in the north. The Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea. The highest point is Chappal Waddi at 2,419 m.


Nigeria is the continent's most populous nation and the world's 7th most populous. The people of Nigeria are generally nice, with some even engaging you with conversations. As the Giant of Africa, Nigeria has more than 500 ethnic groups with different languages and customs. The largest ethnic groups — Yoruba, Igbo, Fulani/Hausa and Tiv — comprise more than 75% of the population. They have strong religious beliefs and respect for the elders is a must-do.


  • New Year's Day (January 1)
  • Easter (Good Friday and Easter Monday, according to the Western Christian tradition)
  • Workers day (May 1)
  • Children's Day (May 27)
  • Democracy Day (May 29)
  • Eid al-Adha
  • Eid al-Fitr, marking the end of Ramadan
  • Eid al-Maulid, Prophet Muhammad's birthday
  • Independence Day (October 1)
  • Christmas (December 25)
  • Boxing Day (December 26)


The official language of Nigeria is English.

The Nigerian dialect of English can be surprisingly different from other forms of English. Many (though certainly not all) Nigerians speak with thick local accents, which means that non-native English speakers may have difficulty understanding them.

Native speakers of English may also have some difficulty understanding Nigerians as Nigerians have a unique way of speaking. You'll immediately realise that Nigerians don't pronounce the letter "r" in the middle of words (e.g. "start" is pronounced as "staht", "journey" is pronounced as "johnny"), the ending "-er" is pronounced as "ah" (e.g. "paper" is pronounced as "pay-pah"), and vowels in the middle of words are not usually pronounced (e.g. "medicine" is pronounced as "med-sin").

Understanding Nigerian English will take some time to get accustomed to, especially if you are not a frequent traveller to Africa. On a side note, you should know that many consider the Nigerian accent to be one of the most wonderful accents in the world.

Nigerian Pidgin, a pidgin derived from English, is mostly used in informal conversations.

Hausa is the second most spoken language in Nigeria, thanks to the fact that the Hausa make up 30-40% of the population in Nigeria.

Yoruba is spoken by nearly 42 million Nigerians and you are likely to find a Yoruba speaker in Southwestern Nigeria.

Get in

Entry requirements

Nigeria isn't a country you can just waltz into. There are few visa-free arrangements in place, and almost everyone requires a visa in advance to enter the country, unless they're citizens of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Nationals of Kenya are allowed to get a visa on arrival in Nigeria, though.

If you’re coming for less than 30 days, getting a “Visa on Arrival” is almost always the way to go. However, “Visa on arrival” is kind of a misnomer because you must apply for it beforehand, no sooner than two weeks before your trip. Once you land, you’ll go to the airport’s visa on arrival office so they can take your biometrics and put the visa in your passport. At the Lagos airport, this can take a few hours depending on how backed up they are. While annoying, this route is almost always far easier than dealing with your local embassy.

To get the Visa on Arrival pre-approval letter, you’ll just need a passport scan, passport photo, flight booking, and invitation letter from a local company. Theoretically, you can submit all this yourself and pay via the Nigerian Immigration Service website. Practically, the payment portal is almost always broken so you’ll often need to submit through a local contact. If you don't have one, ask your hotel / airbnb if they can help.

Since 7 May 2023, the Nigerian Immigration Service has moved to a new website. You can apply for a visa through their new visa application page. Whether the new website's payment portal is working has yet to be tested.

Alternatively, you can try to apply for a tourist or business visa through your local consulate or embassy. However, many Nigerian consulates and embassies don't process visa applications directly and will require you to use a 3rd party processing service like OIS. You'll often need to travel to one of their centers in-person and present a valid passport, a completed visa application form, two passport-sized photographs, a letter of invitation (a hotel reservation may suffice), proof you have funds to cover your travels in Nigeria, and proof you have paid for the visa application. This is almost certainly more hassle than the Visa on Arrival process so it is not recommended.

If you’re coming here longer-term for work, you’ll need to enter the country on an STR (subject to regularization) visa. These can only be applied for at a local consulate or embassy. After entering the country on this visa, you’ll be able to apply for a CERPAC (Combined Expatriate Residence Permit and Aliens Card) which allows you to stay and work.

If you’re coming here to work for a local company, they’ve likely already received an expat quota for you (approval to hire a foreigner) and getting an STR visa should be fairly straightforward (although it can take a month to process).

Nigerian visas are notorious for being very expensive for nationals of certain countries. If you're a citizen of the United States, you will normally be charged US$160 to apply for a Nigerian visa. Citizens of India and Bangladesh have the highest visa fee requirements (they are charged US$253 to apply for any type of visa), whereas citizens of mostly African nations are charged much less, or even nothing at all. Plan and prepare accordingly if your country is on the "high fee" list.

By plane

Lagos is the main international airport for the country, but others include AbujaKano, and Port Harcourt.

  • Several European airlines fly to Nigeria: British Airways (London Heathrow - Abuja, Lagos), Virgin Atlantic (London Heathrow - Lagos), KLM (Amsterdam - AbujaLagos, Kano), Air France (Paris-Charles de Gaulle - Lagos), Turkish Airline (Istanbul - Lagos), Lufthansa (Frankfurt - Abuja, Lagos),
  • Delta Air Lines operates daily non-stop flights a week from Atlanta
  • United Airlines operates non-stop service from Washington DC to Lagos.
  • Other inter-continental airlines fly to Lagos. They include: China Southern Airlines (Beijing, Dubai), Middle East Airlines (Beirut), Qatar Airways (Doha).
  • African airlines that fly to Lagos include: South African Airlines from Johannesburg, Egypt Air from Cairo, Ethiopian Airlines from Addis Ababa, Africa World Airlines from Accra, Kenya Airways from Nairobi, Afriqya Airways from Tripoli, Royal Air Maroc from Casablanca, among others.
  • Air Peace has local and international flights (from other African countries, Dubai and London), Aero from other African countries.
  • Besides these, there are other airlines (in addition to VNA and Bellview) that operate domestic and regional flights to places like Abidjan, Accra, Banjul, Conakry, Dakar, Douala, Freetown, Johannesburg, Libreville, Monrovia.
  • There are also airports in most states of the federation and local air travel is widespread.

By train

There are no international passenger services to Nigeria.

By boat

Transport by boat isn't widespread unless you venture into the riverine areas of Nigeria.

Get around

If you're located in a major city like Lagos or Abuja, taking ride-sharing services Bolt and Uber is usually the easiest way to get around.

However, if you're traveling outside major cities you'll most likely want to hire a car and driver. The road systems in Nigeria are relatively poor compared with North America or Europe, but often still passable. The "okada" (motorcycle) is not for the faint-hearted (there used to be no helmets but as a law the rider is required to have two helmets for himself and a passenger, although very few okada riders adhere to this rule.) and should only be used for short distance journeys. "Okadas" will get you to where you want to go quickly and you will get there in one piece. In Lagos, there are lots of buses and taxis. There are two main types of buses, the molue (an old 911 Mercedes Benz truck turned into school-like bus and the danfo (a Volkswagen Kombi bus turned into an eight-seater minibus). Most smaller cities have more taxis than buses, and they are quite affordable.

For travelling from one city to another, you go to the "motor park", find the taxi that's going to your destination, and wait until it "fills up". The price is fixed, you don't have to negotiate. Some drivers may have a risky driving style however - practically this means that the only rule consistently adhered to (by cars, not necessarily motorcycles), is keeping to the right.

By car

Driving in Nigeria (especially Lagos) is somewhat unique, vaguely resembling driving in Cairo. If mastered, you should however be able to cope in most other countries. While driving in Abuja is relatively decent due to regularly maintained roads, it still doesn't compare with roads in more developed countries.

Many roads are bad, but there are rarely any major accidents, you just have to strap your seatbelts in and enjoy the ride. Expect potholes of every size, and that, except on the highway, people will drive on the wrong side to avoid potholes or other bad patches of road. Sometimes entire roads are non-existent, so be prepared for anything. It is advisable to keep your distance from lorries or large vehicles, as many are driven without side-view mirrors, fully functional breaks, and most dangerous of all, securely strapped/attached cargo.

Grass or branches on the road means there is a broken down vehicle ahead of you, be careful.

If you are white, get used to Nigerians shouting at you as you pass by. It will be something like "Oyibo", "Oniocha", "MBakara", "Bature" or "white man". It all means the same, they are just telling you to smile as you pass.

Self-driving for short-term visitors unfamiliar with the roads, especially in Lagos, is by no means advisable and could actually be quite foolish, perhaps even dangerous. You could easily wander into an area or a road block set by local gangs. If you choose to rent a car, it will come with a driver familiar with the area and style of driving, which is the easier and safer option.

Police may try to take fiscal advantage of you as a foreigner. If you wish to drive yourself it is advisable to stick to the rules, as you will be an easy target for police officers to "fine". These are not real fines, they are payable directly to the officer in cash - without a ticket or a receipt. Even if you obey the traffic rules, police will find some petty reason - like not indicating your intention to drive straight. Should you be pulled over, do not give your license, as you will then lose all bargaining power when negotiating the "fine", which could easily be a maximum of all the visible cash you have on you at the time. Rather, carry a copy of the license and hand that over, or show your license through your window. Also, do not let the police get into your car. They are not really dangerous, but it could get expensive and certainly annoying. However, if you just don't pay and remain calm, it only costs time. They have no real power over you.

Especially over weekends and festive times, it is common practice for police, especially in the richer areas of Lagos, to flag you down and wish you happy weekend/holiday/Christmas/Easter/sunny weather/trip to work. In this case, you did nothing wrong and they do not intend to "fine" you, but are rather asking for a tip. If you insistently yet politely refuse to give something, they will eventually let you go. Just wish them a nice weekend/holiday/etc. too.

If you work for a big company in Nigeria, you will usually have a company driver to drive you around, thereby avoiding the above mentioned problems to a large extent. He can arrange a local driver's license for you should the need arise without a driving test or proof of foreign license.

Nigeria is not part of the most standard international Road Traffic Convention and as such will require a special International Driving Permit (valid only for driving in Nigeria, Somalia and Iraq) (if you do not want to get the Nigerian license), not the normal one applicable to almost all other countries in the world.

The last Saturday of the month is Sanitation Day in Lagos and Kano, when the locals clean their premises. While it is not illegal to be out on the street between 7–10M, due to the higher than usual presence of police officers and road check points, most Nigerians choose to restrict their movements until after 10AM. Should you be caught at this time, you may be taken away by the police to perform some "public sanitation" duty, like mowing lawns, etc.

By train

After having been abandoned for a long time, rehabilitation of rail services in Nigeria are finally in full swing. Helped by Chinese investment several new lines are expected to open in the next few years while older lines are renovated. While still much slower than flying, it is now possible to travel across some parts of the country by train. Nigeria Railway Corporation is the sole operator; this might however change as the government mulls liberalization of the railway sector.

Abuja now has almost daily connections with cities in the interior of Nigeria such as Ilorin, Minna and Kaduna. The Lagos-Ibadan Railway provides high-speed service from Lagos via Abeokuta to Ibadan.

By plane

Arik and Aero Contractors have scheduled domestic connections with modern aircraft and reasonable prices. Their websites are user-friendly and well updated. In Lagos, the two domestic terminals, while next to each other, are about 4-5 km (of road which would not be wise to walk if you don't know the place) from the international terminal, and you would therefore need a taxi to get from the one to the other, should you wish to transfer from an international flight to a domestic one.

By bus

Getting around is relatively easy, except that there could be delays due to traffic jams within most major cities. There are multitudes of coaches and buses that will take you to any part of Nigeria you wish (ABC Transport Services is well known for its services among others). Lagos state government also operates a transit system (BRT buses) which serves the Lagos metropolis.

By taxi

Ride-hailing is available in Nigeria and the following are the most anticipated providers:

  • Bolt. Includes many towns. (updated Jul 2020)
  • Uber. Works in Abuja and Lagos. (updated Jul 2020)


  • Lagos: There are different beach fronts, like Oniru Beach, Landmark Beach, Badagry Beach, Tarkwa bay Beach.
  • Lekki (suburb of Lagos): Lekki Conservation Center - a nice little fenced-off and interesting tropical rainforest reserve with wooden walkways, located on the outskirts of the city on the Lekki Express Way, just before the second toll gate. Lekki Beach, Eleko Beach
  • Plateau: Hiking and sightseeing the Riyom rocks.
  • Enugu: Hiking the old coal mines, and cultural events, e.g. New yam and atilogwu dancers.
  • Calabar: Harbour where you can get boat rides, a nice cinema, sit-out parks and slave monuments in the Marina Resort located in Calabar; also there is Tinapa, a little drive outside the city.
  • Obudu: Small town a few hours to the north from Calabar very close to the Cameroon border - rent a car from Calabar airport (comes with driver) and ask the driver to take you there via Tinapa. This is a cool mountain escape with a nice resort (Obudu Mountain Resort) on the mountain (the president also has a weekend home there). They have some forest walks, hiking, one of the longest cable cars in the world and very nice pristine swimming pools with fountains available.
  • Imo: Igbo Ukwu Shrine, if you are interested in Nigerian art.
  • The old walled cities of KanoKatsina and Zaria.
  • Oyo: Palace of Alaafin, traditional markets and Calabash carvers.
  • Taraba: Tourist attractions like Mambilla plateau (highest point in the country).
  • Machina: A town with its annual cultural festival which takes place in March featuring cultural events such as traditional wrestling and horse racing.
  • Argungu: A small town with its annual fishing festival that occurs three days with approximately 35,000 fishermen catching fish in the murky waters.
  • Abuja: The capital, one of the most beautiful African cities has many tourist attractions including The Zuma rock, Millenium park and lots of rolling hills.


Nollywood is a huge film industry based in Nigeria. By the early 2010s, Nigeria was producing more films than any country other than India, and the value of production was third after the U.S. and India. Nollywood films are enjoyed around the world. With diverse cultures in Nigeria, the Nigerian film industry isn't language biased: movies are shot in English, Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa, Edo, and other 300 Nigerian languages. There are cinemas in most cities and large towns where you can experience this important side of Nigerian culture.



Nigeria's currency is naira (symbol: ?, ISO 4217 code: NGN). Banknotes circulate in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 and inflation typically runs in double figures.

It is advised to cash all your naira back into another currency at the airport before you leave Nigeria. The rate is irrelevant, as the naira is not worth that much outside Nigeria. Naira bills/coins may be of interest to currency collectors, but other than that, they will be nothing more than colourful souvenirs of your trip. Banks will change foreign currency to naira, but usually not the other way around, even though you are a foreigner. You would therefore need to use the Bureaux de Change at the International terminal or the new Domestic terminal or street vendors to get foreign currency should you end up with unused naira at the end of your trip. A safe place to change in Victoria Island is in the tourist market of Eko Hotel in Victoria Island.

If the Bureaux de Change at the airport are closed, the car park outside the International terminal is full of street vendors only willing to change money from any major currency. When dealing with these street vendors, keep the money you are buying fully visible until the deal is finished (i.e. don't put into handbag and later discover it is wrong and then try and bargain) and count carefully with them, as they tend to try and short-change you with a note or two, especially when you change foreign currency into naira (which is a thick bundle of small notes), but with necessary vigilance are generally fine. Street vendors are also plentiful at the main land borders to change naira into CFA francs (XOF (Benin and Niger side) or XAF (Cameroon side)) if need be. XOF and XAF are freely and easily convertible to and from euros at a rate of 655.957 (sometimes with a small commission) when you are in the French countries.

Changing large bills of US dollars or euros will give a better rate with professional money changers, such as on the currency exchange market near Lagos Domestic Airport. This is a walled enclosure with a large number of money changers, which is primarily used by local nationals.

If you have a Visa card, you can withdraw money from Standard Chartered Bank ATMs in Lagos - Aromire St, off Adeniyi Jones, Ikeja & Ajose Adeogun St in Victoria Island Branch, Abuja and Port Harcourt (in Naira) and ATMs of some other banks with "Visa" stickers on them, like GT Bank, UBA, and Zenith. This will save you a lot of stress carrying large sums of money and it is secured.

On Abuja and Lagos International Airport money can be withdrawn from ATMs. On Lagos International there are several ATMs, several may not function at all times. On Lagos Domestic Terminal there is also a functioning ATM in the domestic terminal on the 1st floor. Usually this a quiet ATM which also is very private and secure.

MasterCard/Maestro users can also withdraw money from ATMs at several branches of Zenith Bank and GT Bank. Some ATMs of Ecobank, First Bank and Intercontinental Bank also allow for MasterCard/Maestro cards. Look for the red ATM sign outside, or ask the on-site security officer at any branch. Also look for Ecobank, they have a branch within the premises of the Murtala Muhammed International Airport. Visa is however a safer option if you are visiting the French countries around Nigeria as well, as MasterCard/Maestro is close to useless in these countries.

If you do use an ATM, be aware of the risks of card cloning. This a problem with the airport ATMs which do not have a security guard watching over them. Check your statements regularly after using your card and alert your bank to any suspicious activity.

Nigeria is on an active drive to become a cash-less society, and as such, more and more hotels, restaurant and shops (all the bigger ones at least) accept major credit cards (Visa being the preferred one - but ask first, there is both "local Visa" and "international Visa" - and MasterCard). Diners Club and Amex are almost universally useless in Nigeria. When paying by card, take the usual precautions (watch how they swipe, don't let the card out of your sight, etc.)


At markets, you are supposed to haggle for your goods (a notable exception is bread: its price is fixed). As a general rule, the real price is about half the price that was first asked. The seller may exaggerate the price when he or she thinks that you are a rich tourist ignorant of the real price. After agreeing on a price, don't walk away without buying; this is considered very rude.

Shops like supermarkets and restaurants will typically charge fixed prices. Fresh products and Western-style sit-in restaurants are quite expensive, with it not being uncommon to pay US$75 for a dinner per person.


Main article: Nigerian cuisine

There are many types of traditional cuisine to enjoy. For example: afang soup, okra soup, owo soup and starch in the Niger Delta, plantain (fried, boiled, roasted), pepper soup, amala, eba, efo, pounded yam (iyan - Yoruba for "pounded yam", pronounced " ee-yarn" ), jollof rice, ground nut soup, ogbono soup, isi ewu (goat's head stew), egusi soup, suya (kebab), moin moin, ewedu, gbegiri soup (beans soup), edikangikong, ground-rice, puff-puff, chin chin, ikokore, owerri soup (ofe owerri), which is the most expensive African soup in Nigeria. Not to forget 404 pepper soup - it will make you act like "Oliver Twist." You must realise that 404 means "dog meat." And yes, it can only be found in certain parts of the country because in the west it is seen as barbaric.

For the less adventurous traveller, there are loads of "foreign" restaurants in Lagos, e.g. Sky Bar and the grill at Eco Hotel, Churasco's, Lagoon and Fusion all three next to each other (all-you-can-eat Brazilian grill, Indian and Sushi respectively) with a nice view of the lagoon, Piccolo Mondo, Manuella's Residence (great Italian Pizza from Manuella the Italian lady), Bungalow (close to Coschari's BMW in VI) - good sports bar, grill and Sushi, great Sunday buffet at Radisson Blu. Chocolate Royal is a nice family restaurant with excellent ice cream selection (including ice cream cakes) and pastries in VI. Inside Chocolate Royal is an Oriental restaurant called Métisse. Bottles in VI is a grill and Mexican restaurant. And there are loads more flavours from every corner of the world. Just Google and ask taxi to take you there. Outside Lagos and to a lesser extent Abuja, Western food will tend to disappear, with "Jollof Rice and fried chicken" being a "safe" option if you are not adventurous. Fried plantains, shawarma and chicken suya are some of the best options if you are craving some street food. These are often sold by locals at the roadside.

Foreign restaurants are expensive and you can prepare for a bill of at least $50 to $75 or even $100 per head for main course. If this is too much, try the Syrian Club in Ikoyi (turn North - away from the water) at the Mobil filling station in Awolowo Road (the night club street) in Ikoyi, continue a few blocks and on your left you will see the Syrian mosque, turn in the gate just after the mosque and the Syrian Club will be on your right on the inside of the premises with nice Lebanese/Syrian flair at very affordable (for Lagos) prices in an outdoor setting.

If you are a new expat living in Lagos, do yourself a favour and acquaint yourself early on with the following more expensive, foreign-owned, but well worth it, smaller specialist shops in VI selling all the delicacies and nice imported red meats that foreigners long for in and that Shoprite, Park and Shop, Next, and Goodie's (the main supermarkets) may not stock: 1. Deli's on Akin Adesola (the main road leading to Bar Beach), 2. L'Epicérie across the road from Mega Plaza and 3. La Pointe on Kofo Abayomi Street (close to the Brazilian Embassy/Consulate) and not easy to spot. Knowing these places will significantly improve your coping ability in the first couple of months.


  • Nigeria is one of the places where Guinness is brewed outside of Ireland. And they do it pretty well, although it's not the same product. The Guinness brand (with logo and copyrights where they should be) is also used to brew both an alcohol-free malt version of the black stuff, and an extra strong (about 7.5%) version of Guinness in Kenya (in the case of the latter) and Tanzania (in the case of the former).
  • Beer is a big business in Nigeria, although the move toward evangelism and Islamic law is making its mark. Lagos is relatively unaffected due to its cosmopolitan nature. Heineken, Star, Harp, Gulder and other international beers are available.
  • Malt beverages (non alcoholic) are very common in Nigeria.
  • The other cheap drink of choice is gin, which is locally made. It may contain toxic methanol due to lack of quality control, so steer clear.

Other drinks to consider include: palm wine, wine, zobo (red soft drink, is a tea of dried roselle flowers), kunun, kai kai (also called ogogoro).

The northern states have implemented Sharia (Islamic) law, which means that alcohol is prohibited. Ironically, the only places where you can drink a beer in these states are the police staff bars and the army barracks, because these are institutions under federal law. Beer is available in Kano, in restaurants managed by foreign or Christian people, Chinese restaurants, and/or French cafes.

For a real night out, go to the Sabongari area of the old town. Plenty of bars around that stay open till very late. Many do decent food as well. Sabongari is also the place to buy alcoholic drinks and there are plenty stores open late into the night. Some hotels in Kano are "dry", however in Tahir Guest Palace the staff will be quite happy to buy you a few bottles of beer for you in your room (all rooms have large fridges).


Almost all hotels in Nigeria require you to pay before you get your key. This applies even to the Sheraton and the Hilton. Typically you are requested to pay 125% of the room rate and you will be refunded when settling the bill at your departure. If you stay more than one night you need to keep the credit up. However, paying this deposit by credit card can leave you open to subsequent fraudulent use of your details.


There are lots of private and public primary (elementary) and secondary (high) schools. It is worth it to organize a trip to whatever institution of learning you are interested in as this would give you a personal perspective on what facilities are available in your school of interest. There is a nationwide, standardized common entrance exam for students wishing to go into secondary schools, after they have completed their primary schooling. To gain admission into the universities (both public and private universities are in every state of the federation including the FCT), a prospective student has to sit for and successfully pass the UME (Universities Matriculation Examination) which is administered by JAMB (Joint Admission and Matriculation Board). Also, individual universities regularly screen prospective candidates to make sure they are up to par for university-level work.


Working in Nigeria can be a very positive experience. Nigerian organizations tend to operate like small families, taking in newcomers with open arms and avoiding the coolness and sterility that often characterize the Western professional work environment. For instance, don't even think about coming into the office in the morning without greeting each of your colleagues. Even if you don't, be sure that they will go out of their way to greet you and inquire about your well-being.

It is hard to make generalizations about a country with 140 million inhabitants, but some Nigerians have a work ethic that would put most Westerners to shame. An eight-hour day (not including lunch) seems to be the norm, though it's not uncommon for people to stay late into the night and even come in for a few hours on weekends. Depending on the organization, a foreigner may be able to avoid this, but one should be prepared to work beyond the standard 35-40 hr work week.

The notion of "African time" applies very much to the work environment in Nigeria. Meetings are regularly held later than scheduled and often take longer than necessary. Although Nigerians will unabashedly admit to their habitual tardiness, rarely does one see efforts to correct this behavior. The higher one's position, the later one may arrive at a meeting. On top of that, starting the meeting before the important people arrive is very rude--a common principle shared with many Western countries. When dealing with foreign organizations, Nigerians will often make some efforts to correct this behaviour, for some Nigerians are aware that their conception of punctuality is not shared by all.

Those who are used to the strict North American conception of political correctness at the office may be shocked by the more liberal inter-sexual relations in the Nigerian workplace. Mild sexual jokes are common in meetings and in the office in general, though usually good natured and harmless. A white person working in an all-Nigerian workplace should also be prepared to frequently be reminded of their skin tone, though never in a nasty way. This can become tiresome, but Nigerians are generally very friendly. They use the term "Oyibo" (white man in Yoruba) or "Bature" (white man in Hausa) as a form of affection.

The use of professional titles in written and verbal form is very common in Nigeria. Expect to address your boss as Sir, Doctor, Colonel, etc., and avoid using the first name of a superior unless given permission to do so. Being a foreigner, you will be forgiven for any faux pas, but it is always best to err on the side of caution and politeness.

The mobile phone (cell phone) is an essential tool for virtually all urban - and most rural - Nigerians. Because of the many local networks, many people have two or even three "handsets", each on a different network. Anyone doing business in the country for more than a few days should consider having a mobile phone.

Stay safe

Nigerian crime levels are fairly high, particularly in Lagos. The far north eastern regions of Nigeria is troubled by the Boko Haram jihadist group which is known for its attacks on non-Muslims and taking the law into their own hands. This Islamist group is also known for its harsh interpretation of sharia law which includes flogging. Boko Haram attacks Christians and proselytizers so avoid traveling to the north east in large groups. The US State Department and the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office advise against travel to this area, while Global Affairs Canada recommends against non-essential travel to Nigeria (other than AbujaCalabar and Lagos) because of the risks of terrorism, and recommends practising special health precautions because of the risk of contracting malaria.

The Niger Delta area is unsafe for tourists. There is continual low-level violence between government and militant groups, and there have been several kidnappings of foreign oil workers.


Corruption in general is systemic and endemic in Nigeria. Transparency International ranks Nigeria as one of the most corrupt nations on the planet. In 2012, it was believed that Nigeria has lost a total of $400 billion to corruption since independence. The police are notorious for being highly corrupt and woefully ineffective, and the locals do not trust them at all. Nigerians have to pay the police to get reliable assistance for anything. Cronyism and nepotism are common in the police force, and police officers routinely target, harass, extort, and intimidate people, including locals, for bribes. As a foreigner, you may be seen as a "walking wallet" to corrupt officials.


Police corruption and misconduct is endemic in Nigeria. The Special Anti-Robbery Squad, tasked to combat violent property crimes, is notorious for abusing their power. If you are stopped by the police for anything, always remain respectful, but be firm. Do not be tempted to argue or fight back with a police officer, even if you haven't done anything wrong.

LGBT travellers

Homosexual sex acts are illegal. LGBT travellers should take extra caution when travelling to Nigeria, especially in the North, where sharia law implementation can be strict. Both gays and lesbians can be executed, but are more likely to be imprisoned. In fact, a law that has been wildly popular among Muslim and Christian Nigerians alike has made it a crime to know that someone is homosexual and not report it to the authorities.

Stay healthy

Travellers to Nigeria are required to vaccinate themselves against yellow fever, preferably 10 days before arrival in Nigeria. As malaria is prevalent, malaria pills and mosquito nets are also recommended. Polio vaccination in Nigeria is intermittent and there is a high rate of infection in the North.

Water is sold in different sizes (sachet and bottle). The bottled water and other soft drinks are safe. It is approx ?150 for a big bottle (June 2021). The cheap "pure water" sold in plastic bags is cheaper but not as "pure" as Eva water, a brand by Coca Cola Company, or Nestle water by Nestle Nigeria. Do not buy water that does not have NAFDAC registration printed on the bottle. It is advisable to purchase bottled water from convenience stores rather than by the roadside. These upscale convenience stores usually purchase their supplies directly from the suppliers.

For the latest traveller's health information pertaining to Nigeria, including advisories and recommendations, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Nigeria destination website.


Respect for authority figures, as is the case throughout Africa, is a part of Nigerian culture. If someone in a position of authority (policeman, teacher, someone older than you, and the like) tells you to do something, respect them and do it. There's absolutely nothing wrong with disagreeing with someone older than you so long as you do it respectfully and tactfully.

Some of the country's languages have different ways for someone to address someone older than themselves. Handing things over to people, especially adults and people older than you, with your left hand is considered an insult.

You don't cross or jump over someone's legs if they are sitting with the legs extended out. It's considered bad luck.

Avoid shaking hands with elders and older people in non-Igbo villages. It's disrespectful to do that. Bowing down a little and kneeling or genuflecting for women or prostrating by men (especially among the Yoruba) is the normal thing to do. You may not need to do it either, but just show some form of respect when greeting older people. You can get away with not doing that in big cities or urban areas; they are less traditional there.

When entering a house in the predominantly Muslim north, you have to let them know in advance that you are visiting so that the women can prepare (cover themselves up). Some Islamic customs require women to cover their hair and bodies to other men and this is practised in the North. Knock on the door and wait to be answered before going in. They will ask you to wait while the women are informed. Wait patiently.


The country code for Nigeria is 234.

Dialing out from Nigeria: you will need to dial the International Code, followed by the phone digit numbers.

Dialing into Nigeria: callers use +234 followed by the phone digit numbers. There is also a company in Nigeria called Elixir Communication Worldwide that offers mobile phones for the blind and visually challenged. All the mobile operators have a roaming agreement with other mobile operators around the world.

The leading zero in area codes and similar prefixes is for domestic calls. It is not dialled when using the country code.

Mobile phone service providers:

  • Airtel (Bharti Airtel) (Formerly Zain, Celtel). Services include pay and recharge with post-paid, prepaid, data bundle and recharge with easy options *444#. Voice and data with voice, data and devices, home broadband (Wi-Fi) devices. VAS with support, easy recharge. Me2U, MyAirtel App Postpaid plans. 2G 3G 4G LTE. (updated Jun 2021)
  • MTN. Services include pay and recharge with post-paid, prepaid, data bundle and recharge with easy options *131#. Voice and data with voice, data and devices, home broadband (Wi-Fi) devices. VAS with support, Easy recharge. Me2U, MyMTN App Postpaid plans. 2G 3G 4G LTE. (updated Jun 2021)
  • 9mobile (former Etisalat). Services include pay and recharge with post-paid, prepaid, data bundle and recharge with easy options *222#. Voice and data with voice, data and devices, home broadband (Wi-Fi) devices. VAS with support, Easy recharge. Me2U, My9Mobile App Postpaid plans. 2G 3G 4G LTE. (updated Jun 2021)
  • Glo (Globalcom). Services include pay and recharge with post-paid, prepaid, data bundle and recharge with easy options *777#. Voice and data with voice, data and devices, home broadband (Wi-Fi) devices. VAS with support, easy recharge. Me2U, MyGlo app postpaid plans. 2G, 3G, 4G, LTE. Mobile money. Network with lowest offerings for airtime and data. (updated Jun 2021)

Go next

  • Travel north to Niger, and into the Sahara Desert.
  • Travel east to Cameroon, for some mountain climbing.
  • Travel west to Benin, the best way out when travelling to Europe overland.
  • Travel northeast to Chad.

AVOID NON-ESSENTIAL TRAVEL; see also regional advisories.

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.

Increased threat of attacks and kidnappings

In 2013, the French military assisted the Malian government in efforts to repel armed rebels. Terrorist groups in the region declared their intention to increase attacks and kidnappings targeting Westerners. While the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali has been supporting the transitional authorities in stabilizing the region since July 2013, citizens of countries supporting the intervention are still at particular risk, but all travellers should exercise increased vigilance in the region.

Northern states of Borno, Gombe, Yobe, Kano and Kaduna and Middle Belt states of Bauchi and Plateau (see Advisory)

There is a high threat of domestic terrorism in the northern states of Gombe, Yobe, Borno, Kano, Adamawa and Kaduna, where the extremist group Boko Haram, which often claims responsibility for terrorist attacks, is based. Boko Haram-related attacks have resulted in thousands of deaths and injuries. A state of emergency is in effect in the states of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa. Additional security personnel have been deployed to these states. Curfews are in effect for Damaturu metropolis (capital of Yobe State) and the state of Kaduna and are subject to change. You should avoid all travel within and around these areas. Consult the Terrorism section below for more information.

There is a risk of foreign nationals being kidnapped in some northern states of Nigeria. See the Kidnapping section below.

The Middle Belt states of Bauchi and Plateau are significantly affected by inter-communal violence. Frequent episodes of violent attacks occur in the city of Jos, located in Plateau State, and the situation remains unstable. Hundreds of people have died in violent clashes. Jos has also been the target of terrorist attacks perpetrated by suicide bombers. There is a state of emergency in the state of Plateau.

The borders with Niger, Chad and Cameroon could be closed on short notice.

Niger Delta states (see Advisory)

The security situation in the Niger Delta region is fragile and unstable, particularly in the states of Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, Abia, Anambra, Rivers (with the exception of Rivers state capital Port Harcourt where we advise against non-essential travel). Regional and ethnic conflicts between militant groups occur in the area, and have led to unrest and violence in the past. Militant activity has also been directed towards foreign interests. Armed groups have carried out successful attacks on oil facilities and workers, resulting in injuries and deaths. Incidents of armed robbery have also increased. Kidnapping occurs in the Niger Delta States. See the Kidnapping section below.

Piracy is an ongoing threat in the Niger Delta states. Incidents of piracy, including attacks, kidnappings, hostage takings and ship hijackings are very common in this extremely volatile area. You should avoid the riverine and shoreline areas at all times. Insurgents in speedboats and equipped with high-calibre weapons operate along the coastal waters in the region. For additional information, consult the Live Piracy Report published by the International Maritime Bureau.

If you choose to remain in the Niger Delta states despite this warning, you should be extremely vigilant at all times. If travelling for business, ensure that meetings are held at a secure location and that the contact is known to you. Seek the advice of local authorities when planning trips and leave a detailed itinerary with family or friends. Contact the High Commission in Abuja or the Deputy High Commission in Lagos for the latest security information and register with the Registration of Canadians Abroad (ROCA) service.

Abuja, Calabar and Lagos

You are advised to exercise a high degree of caution in the capital city, Abuja, and in popular locations within close proximity of Abuja such as Bwari and Gurara Falls. You are advised against non-essential travel beyond this area (see Advisory). There is a risk of terrorism and crime in Abuja. After dark, all unnecessary travel should be avoided. An exchange of gunfire took place in the Apo area of Abuja on September 20, 2013. See the Terrorism and Crime sections below.

You are advised to exercise a high degree of caution in Calabar, the capital of Cross River State, where the security situation is stable and facilities are relatively well developed compared to the rest of the country. You are advised against non-essential travel to the rest of Cross River State.

You are advised to exercise a high degree of caution in the city of Lagos, specifically within the area covering Ikeja in the north down to Lagos Island, Victoria Island and Ikoyi, and from Mile Two (west end of Lagos) to Chevron Estate on the Lekki Peninsula (east end of Lagos). You are advised against non-essential travel beyond this area (see Advisory). The level of criminality in Lagos is high and incidents of violent crime, including assaults and armed attacks, have occurred against foreign nationals and in areas frequented by foreigners. All unnecessary travel should be avoided after dark.

If you decide to travel to these cities you should stay in secure, guarded accommodations and maintain a heightened level of personal security awareness at all times. Contact the High Commission in Abuja for advice on taking the necessary security precautions.


There is a high threat from domestic terrorism in Nigeria, particularly in some northern and Middle Belt states. Incidents of terrorist attacks, which can involve improvised explosive devices (IED), gun fire and explosions, occur frequently and result in numerous deaths and injuries. Large-scale and small scale bomb attacks have occurred, some coordinated to strike simultaneously in different cities. Targets have included Nigerian government institutions and security facilities, police stations, universities and places of worship. Terrorists have used vehicle borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs) to target churches in communities across the country, and inter-religious, retaliatory violence often follows. Attacks may increase during religious holidays.

Further terrorist attacks could be random and target locations frequented by expatriates and foreign travellers, including government institutions, international organizations, large hotels, bars, markets and shopping centers. In recent years, the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) has been targeted by terrorists. On August 26, 2011, a large bomb exploded at the United Nations building in Abuja, killing more than 20 people and wounding dozens. Remain highly vigilant and avoid large crowds and gatherings when in public places in Abuja.


Nigerian authorities have imposed curfews as a means to restore order after violence erupts in volatile areas. Curfews are currently in effect for the cities of Gusau (Zamfara State), Kano (Kano State), Maiduguri (Borno State), Minna (Niger State), Potiskum (Yobe State), and Yola and Mubi (Adamawa State). Canadians in affected areas are urged to limit their essential movements to daylight hours, avoid all public gatherings, keep a supply of basic foods on hand, monitor the security situation and closely follow the advice of local authorities, especially with respect to curfews.


Kidnappings are a particular threat in the Niger Delta region and in southwestern Nigeria, but can occur elsewhere in the country.

There has been a recent increase of cases of kidnappings for ransom targeting Westerners in the affluent areas of Lagos. Throughout the Niger Delta states, numerous Westerners, mainly oil and gas facility workers, have been abducted, and in some cases, killed. Remain especially vigilant in Warri, Delta State. In Port HarcourtRivers State, you should avoid going to public places frequented by expatriates, including bars and restaurants, and avoid the waterfront at all times. The states of Abia, Anambra and Imo are at risk for kidnappings for ransom as well as violent acts. Recent events have demonstrated that attacks, often perpetrated by small groups of armed individuals, are indiscriminate. Residents and foreigners alike have been abducted and held captive, sometimes for days, until ransom was paid. Deaths have also been reported.

Incidents of kidnapping have occurred in the northern states of Bauchi, Kwara, Kaduna and Kano.


There is a high level of crime throughout Nigeria, including armed robbery, kidnapping for ransom, and violent assault. Criminal activity remains high in urban areas, including the city of Lagos. Robberies and muggings conducted by large, well-armed groups, in places frequented by expatriates, are common. Some have been committed by persons posing as police or military personnel. Incidents include armed attacks against foreign nationals and assaults in areas frequented by foreigners.

Use caution when travelling to and from banks and be particularly discreet when using automated banking machines (ABMs).

Before booking a hotel, ensure that sufficient security measures are in place. Check with local authorities to determine which hotels are safe for foreigners. Stay only at reputable hotels.

House robberies are on the rise in Abuja, and remain a serious concern in residential areas of Lagos.

Petty crime is common in crowded places, especially in public markets, as well as popular tourist sites. Should you visit the beach or sign up for a fishing excursion, do so only during daylight and in large groups, particularly those beaches in the vicinity of Victoria Island (Lekki and Bar beaches).

Incidents of armed robbery and carjacking have occurred along main routes to international and domestic airports. (See the Travel to and from the airport section below).


Avoid demonstrations, protests and large gatherings, as they can turn violent without notice. Strikes may occasionally interfere with land and air transportation.

Road travel

Across Nigeria, roads are generally in poor condition and lack adequate lighting. Excessive speeds and unpredictable driving habits pose hazards. All unnecessary road travel should be avoided after dark. Road accidents pose a serious risk and you should exercise great caution, especially when travelling on highways and outside major urban areas.

Personal security and appropriate journey management should be observed as a very high priority. Road travel can be dangerous due to robberies and carjackings, which sometimes include physical violence. There have been reports of attempted armed robbery on main highways between state capitals. Carjackings have also occurred in main cities, including Lagos and Abuja. Many strategies may be used to stop cars on the road, such as nails being scattered on the road, or individuals, including pregnant women, pretending to be injured.

Police checkpoints are very frequent on roads throughout the country. Abuse by some law-enforcement officers, armed gangs and others to extort bribes is common. This is a recurring security problem, especially along Nigeria’s borders. If you need assistance, you may contact the High Commission of Canada in Abuja.

Rental cars are available in Nigeria, but should be avoided. Major hotels and the customer service centres at the airports in LagosAbuja and Kano offer reliable car-hire services complete with drivers.

Local and public transportation

Public transportation is not recommended due to the risk of petty theft and armed attacks. Passengers in taxis have been driven to secluded areas where they have been attacked and robbed.  However, if you must use a taxi, verify that nobody is hiding in the trunk before entering the vehicle. Locals have been known to hide in the trunk and then emerge through the back seat to rob the passenger once the taxi is in motion.

Motorbike taxis, known in Nigeria as “okadas”, are a typical form of public transportation in many cities and are dangerous to motorists, their own passengers and pedestrians. In a number of cities, okada drivers and passengers are required to wear helmets.

Travel to and from the airport

Arrange to arrive at the airport during the day and be met there by reliable contacts. Be extremely cautious when travelling to and from the airport. If transportation is not arranged by hosts or the hotel, you are advised to hire cars and drivers from reputable security providers with respect to journey management. Drivers should be experienced, have local knowledge, and be familiar with alternative routes. All arrangements should be made prior to your arrival in Nigeria. When arranging to hire a car and driver, be sure to agree on a price and all details before accepting.

Incidents of armed robbery and carjacking have occurred along main routes to international and domestic airports. Also, be aware that criminals have posed as bogus greeters at the airport. Several incidents of armed robbery resulting in deaths have occurred at the Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos.

Air travel

See our FAQ on Transportation in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

During the dry season, the Harmattan wind leads to high amounts of sand and dust in the air. Air travel within Nigeria can sometimes be restricted due to limited visibility. Occasionally, flights must be rerouted from their original destinations.


Cases of attempted fraud are frequently reported in this country. See our Overseas Fraud page for more information on scams abroad.


Pirate attacks and armed robbery against ships occur in coastal waters. Mariners should take appropriate precautions. For additional information, consult the Live Piracy Report published by the International Maritime Bureau.

General safety information

Carry photocopies of your official identification at all times and safely store passports, visas and travel documents.

You should remain discreet; avoid walking alone and displaying any signs of affluence in public. Valuables or bags should not be left unattended.

Local telecommunications are subject to disruptions. Always carry a mobile phone. There are many mobile phone companies in Nigeria and it is the preferred method of telecommunications.

The country experiences regular fuel shortages. Monitor local media sources for indicators of the circumstances that precede fuel shortages and ensure that you have adequate supplies on hand.


Related Travel Health Notices
Consult a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic preferably six weeks before you travel.

Routine Vaccines

Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.

Vaccines to Consider

You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.


Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.


Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.


This country is in the African Meningitis Belt, an area where there are many cases of meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease (meningitis) is a serious and sometimes fatal infection of the tissue around the brain and the spinal cord. Travellers who may be at high risk should consider getting vaccinated. High-risk travellers include those living or working with the local population (e.g., health care workers), those travelling to crowded areas or taking part in large gatherings, or those travelling for a longer period of time.


There is a risk of polio in this country. Be sure that your vaccination against polio is up-to-date.


Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).


Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives, or with weakened immune systems. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should consider getting vaccinated.

Yellow Fever Vaccination

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
  • There is a risk of yellow fever in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
  • Proof of vaccination is required if you are coming from a country where yellow fever occurs.
  • Vaccination is recommended.
  • Discuss travel plans, activities, and destinations with a health care provider.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites.

Food and Water-borne Diseases

Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.

In some areas in West Africa, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in West Africa. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!


There have been cases of cholera reported in this country in the last year. Cholera is a bacterial disease that typically causes diarrhea. In severe cases it can lead to dehydration and even death.

Most travellers are generally at low risk. Humanitarian workers and those visiting areas with limited access to safe food and water are at higher risk. Practise safe food and water precautions. Travellers at high risk should get vaccinated.


Schistosomiasis is caused by blood flukes (tiny worms) spread to humans through contaminated water. The eggs of the worms can cause stomach illnesses like diarrhea and cramps or urinary problems. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Avoid swimming in contaminated water. There is no vaccine available for schistosomiasis.

Travellers' diarrhea
  • Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
  • Risk of developing travellers’ diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
  • The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.


Insects and Illness

In some areas in West Africa, certain insects carry and spread diseases like African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis, Rift Valley feverWest Nile virus and yellow fever.

Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.

Dengue fever
  • Dengue fever occurs in this country. Dengue fever is a viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms. In some cases it leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.  
  • Mosquitoes carrying dengue bite during the daytime. They breed in standing water and are often found in urban areas.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine available for dengue fever.

Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is an eye and skin disease caused by a parasite spread through the bite of an infected female blackfly.  Onchocerciasis often leads to blindness if left untreated. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from blackfly bites, which are most common during the daytime and close to running water. There is no vaccine available for onchocerciasis although drug treatments exist.



  • There is a risk of malaria throughout the year in the whole country.
  • Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There is no vaccine against malaria.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in well-screened air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet or pre-treating travel gear with insecticides.
  • See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss the benefits of taking antimalarial medication and to determine which one to take.


Animals and Illness

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Certain infections found in some areas in West Africa, like avian influenza and rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.

Avian Influenza

There have been human cases of avian influenza ("bird flu”) in this country. Avian influenza is a viral infection that can spread by contact with infected birds or surfaces and objects contaminated by their feces or other secretions.

Avoid unnecessary contact with domestic poultry and wild birds as well as surfaces contaminated with their feces or other secretions. Ensure all poultry dishes and eggs are thoroughly cooked.


Person-to-Person Infections

Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are spread through blood and bodily fluids; practise safer sex.


HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). 

Practise safe sex while travelling, and don’t share needles, razors, or other objects which could transmit infection.

Remember that HIV can also be spread through the use of unsterile medical equipment during medical and dental procedures, tattooing, body piercing or acupuncture. Diseases can also be spread though blood transfusions and organ transplantation if the blood or organs are not screened for HIV or other blood-borne pathogens.


Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.

For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.

Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care provider.

High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.

Medical services and facilities

Medical services and facilities

Medical facilities and care are basic in major cities and limited outside urban centres. Due to the high incidence of fake medications, prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs, you should not purchase drugs in Nigeria unless from a well-known, reputable supplier.



Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.

Restricted and illegal activities

The use of illicit drugs is prohibited.

Cross-dressing is prohibited and punishable under the Prostitution and Immoral Acts Law.

In Abuja, smoking is banned in public places.

Homosexual activity is illegal. Since January 2014, convicted offenders can face up to 14 years in prison. Any person who “registers, operates or participates in gay clubs, societies or organisations” or anyone who makes “a public display of same sex amorous relationship” may face a prison sentence of up to 10 years.  Furthermore, anyone who witnesses or abets any of these acts is also liable to a 10 year sentence. In certain northern states, where Sharia law is applied, penalties can include the death sentence.

It is illegal to import beer, mineral water, soft drinks, sparkling wine, fruits, vegetables, cereals, eggs, fabrics, mosquito netting, jewellery and precious metals. It is illegal to export pieces of African art, particularly antiques, without written authorization from the Department of Antiquities. Contact the High Commission of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in Ottawa for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Photography of airports, government buildings and military installations is prohibited.

Sharia law

Islamic practices and beliefs are closely adhered to in Nigeria’s customs, laws and regulations. Sharia law has been adopted in 12 northern states (Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, KadunaKanoKatsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe and Zamfara). Exercise common sense and discretion in behaviour, and dress conservatively. In the north, women are advised to keep their legs covered and travel with a scarf that can be used to cover their head and arms when required.

Ensure that you respect religious and social traditions to avoid offending local sensitivities.

The Sharia penal code may be applicable to non-Muslims in some parts of the country. Transgressions could be punished by detention or other penalties.


The economy of Nigeria is cash-based. The currency is the naira (NGN). U.S. dollars are widely accepted. Credit cards are accepted at some major hotels in Lagos and Abuja; however, you are strongly advised against the use of credit cards and debit cards due to the high potential for fraud and other criminal activity. Traveller’s cheques are very difficult to cash in Nigeria. The exportation of naira is limited by law to certain amounts.


The rainy season extends from May to October. During this period, rainfall is abundant and may result in localized flash flooding. Roads may become impassable in affected areas.

In summer, central and northern Nigeria periodically experience heat waves. During the dry season, which extends from November to April, this region is also affected by the harmattan. 

Keep informed of regional weather forecasts and plan accordingly.

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