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Chad (Arabic: ????, French: Tchad) is a landlocked country situated in the centre of Africa. Chad is home to more than 200 different ethnic groups (making it one of the most diverse countries in the world) and there are national parks, desert lakes, sand dunes, canyons and camel caravans that will interest the daring and adventurous.



  • 1 N'Djamena — the national capital and largest city
  • 2 Moundou — the country's second-largest city
  • 3 Abéché — capital of Ouaddai province and historical capital of the Wadai Empire
  • 4 Faya — largest city in the north of the country



For more than 2,000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary peoples. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artefacts and oral histories. The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region.

French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. The French primarily viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton. The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service.

Fifteen thousand Chadian soldiers fought for Free France during World War II and after the war ended, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to both the French National Assembly and a Chadian assembly. Chad was granted independence on 11 August 1960 with François Tombalbaye, as its first president. Two years later, Tombalbaye banned opposition parties and established a one-party system. In 1965 Muslims began a civil war. Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed in 1975, but the insurgency continued. In 1979 the rebel factions conquered the capital, and all central authority in the country collapsed. The disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country, and a civil war in which the Libyans (unsuccessfully) became involved.

A semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which sporadically flares up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005 new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and have made probing attacks into eastern Chad. In 2005, President Idriss Deby won a referendum to remove constitutional term limits. In 2008, an attempted coup rocked the capital. Another coup attempt occurred in 2013. Deby died in April 2021, the nation's National Assembly and government were dissolved and national leadership was replaced with a transitional military council.

Although the country is wealthy in natural resources, widespread corruption and political instability mean that only a small segment of the population receives the wealth. Since the 2000s, oil has become the country's largest industry, even superseding the traditional cotton industry. It is believed that the country has one of the largest oil deposits in the world.


Each year a tropical weather system known as the inter-tropical front crosses Chad from south to north, bringing a wet season that lasts from May to October in the south, and from June to September in the Sahel.


The country's landscape comprises broad, arid plains in the centre, desert in the north, mountains in the northwest, and lowlands in the south. Lowest point: Djourab Depression (160 m/525 ft). Highest point: Emi Koussi (3,415 m/11,204 ft).

The dominant physical structure is a wide basin bounded to the north, east and south by mountain ranges such as the Ennedi Plateau in the north-east. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the remains of an immense lake that occupied 330,000 km2 (130,000 sq mi) of the Chadian Basin 7,000 years ago. Although in the 21st century it covers only 17,806 km2 (6,875 sq mi), and its surface area is subject to heavy seasonal fluctuations, the lake is Africa's second largest wetland.


The main languages of Chad are Arabic and French. Few Chadians other than the educated and well-travelled speak literary Arabic; however, a dialect of Arabic known as "Chadian Arabic" is much more widely spoken and is the closest thing the country has to a trade language. Chadian Arabic is significantly different from literary Arabic, but similar to the dialects of Sudan and Egypt. Literary Arabic speakers can typically understand Chadian Arabic but the reverse is not true. Over one hundred indigenous languages are also spoken.

Get in


As is the case with many African countries, almost everyone requires a visa to visit Chad. Costs may vary per Embassy. Europe (including UK) is served by Chadian embassies in Brussels and Paris. A single entry visa (up to 1 month) costs 70 €, a multiple entry visa for 1-3 months costs 100 € (2022).

In the USA, a single-entry visa costs US$100 for 1 month and multiple-entry visas cost US$150 (3 months) or US$200 (6 months). A letter of invitation is required.

Citizens of the following countries do not require a visa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal.

Registration with the local authorities is compulsory within 72 hours after arrival and requires a further passport photo and your passport. You also have to report to the police in the regions where you’ll be staying/visiting sights, but any good travel company will arrange both for you swiftly. There is a 'tourist tax' of 5,000 CFA per person per site (Guelta d'Archei for example is one, nearby Terkei mountain as well, as are Ounianga Kebir and Ounianga Serir).

By plane

Air France has daily flights from Paris to N'Djaména. Ethiopia Airlines flies to Addis Ababa, Turkish airlines to Istanbul, Royal Air Maroc to Casablanca, Sudan Airways to Khartoum, Egypt Air to Cairo, and Camair-co to Douala.

By train

There are no usable rail links.

By car

Roads are in disrepair and are typically unpaved. There is a paved road which runs from Massakory in the north through N'Djamena on to Guelendeng, Bongor, Kelo, Moundou, Doba, Koumra, Sarh, and Kyabe. The other main paved road is between N'Djamena and Abeche, 700km to the east. These are the best roads in the country, but still there are numerous potholes and as it runs through the centre of a number of small villages, drivers should exercise caution and moderate speeds even while on the main road. The road between N'Djamena and Abeche is a toll road, with toll stations every 80km where a fixed rate of 500 CFA per car has to be paid.

There are several border crossings with Cameroon, most notably via Kousseri near N'Djamena and near the towns of Bongor and Lere. Be very careful, drive defensively, and don't stop unless absolutely necessary. Do not drive at night, as coupeurs de route (road bandits) are common. They are a particular concern along the two roads leading out of Guelendeng, towards Ba-Illi (where expats were attacked in two separate incidents in 2005, resulting in the death of one Catholic nun) and towards Bongor.

By bus

Get around

In N'Djamena there are vehicle taxis. In some major towns, such as Moundou and Sarh, there are "clandos" - motorcycle taxis - for getting around town.

In October 2018, a domestic Chadian airline was launched, Tchadia Air. It was placed into liquidation in 2022. Charter flights exist to Zakouma NP and Faya-Largeau Airport (for Ennedi), and are used by the more upmarket tours around Chad.


Due to the inaccessibility of most of the country, any substantial visit will be by an organised tour. Local companies such as SVS , Tchad Evasion and Eyte Voyages offer itineraries for private groups and fixed date group tours. Their tours and/or their capabilities are also resold via the more adventurous US/UK/European tour operators.


Chad is the quintessential destination to experience the Sahara desert: its ecosystem, but also its past and present forms of human habitation. The Ennedi Massif is a picturesque sandstone bulwark in the middle of the Sahara, which was formed by erosion from wind and temperature. The area is also known for its rock paintings. The Guelta d'Archei is one of the rare pockets of water in the Ennedi, inhabited by the West African crocodile and frequented by camel caravans. The Lakes of Ounianga are a group of 18 ancient lakes with an unique hydrological system. Both the Ennedi Massif and the Lakes of Ounianga are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Since the takeover by the NGO African Parks in 2010, 1 Zakouma National Park.  has developed itself into a prime destination for safari connaisseurs. Poaching has been virtually eliminated and wildlife numbers are thriving. Part of the Sudan-Guinea Savannah vegetation zone, Zakouma’s floodplains, rivers, marshes and pans are a sanctuary for West and Central African wildlife. After reintroduction of the Black Rhino in 2018, it also is a ‘Big Five Park’.

Football is the most popular sport in Chad with Les Sao being the international tournament. The Chadian national team have never qualified in the World Cup or the African Cup of Nations. However, home matches are only played at the Idriss Mahamat Ouya Stadium.

Other sites of interest:

  • Oasis of Faya. - the largest oasis in northern Chad.
  • Tibesti Mountains - a mountain range in the far north, with the volcano of Emi Koussi and the domain of the Toubou people
  • Lake Chad. - large border lake, covered by a hundred islands and islets of which many are inhabited.


Gerewol is a week-long festival, held yearly in late September in the southwest of Chad. The men of the nomadic Woodabe tribe, herding their cattle around Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria, congregate to dress up and dance in order to attract a new wife. The festival locations are impossible to find independently, so as a foreigner without links to the community the only way to experience it will be as part of an organized small group tour.



The currency of the country is the Central African CFA franc, denoted FCFA (ISO currency code: XAF). It's also used by five other Central African countries. It is interchangeable at par with the West African CFA franc (XOF), which is used by six countries. Both currencies are fixed at a rate of €1 = 655.957 CFA francs.

There are no restrictions on bringing foreign currencies into Chad. Euros and US dollars are often accepted in payment. Chad is an expensive place compared to much of Africa, especially regarding accommodation and transport. Outside of the places frequented by expats, a soft drink will cost between 300 and 500 CFA.


There are Ecobank ATMs in Chad where you can withdraw cash with a Mastercard or Visa card.


Meat dishes are very popular in Chad, and foreigners speak highly of the meat. Lamb and camel meat are common and tasty. Food is usually eaten without utensils, and hand sanitizer may be a good precaution. Muslims find it offensive to eat with the left hand. If eating with or being served by Muslims in Chad, eat with your right hand only.

Follow common health travel guidelines concerning raw fruit and cooking requirements to avoid disease.


In general, do not drink unfiltered water in Chad. Typhoid and other disease carriers are often present in unfiltered water. Bottled water should be safe, but make sure the bottle is properly sealed, as some street vendors will take old bottles and refill them with unfiltered water.

Soft drinks are popular in Chad and are generally safe to drink. Coca-Cola, Sprite, Fanta and Top (a fruit-flavored soft drink) are the most popular.

Hot drinks should usually be safe to drink since the water has been boiled. Tea, coffee, and hot milk are very popular.

Chad is a secular country, but the north and center are predominantly Muslim. It is therefore sometimes difficult (and not well regarded) to find and consume alcohol outside of the cities. It's no problem in the south and in N'Djamena.


Years ago few hotels existed in Chad, but now N'Djamena hosts a myriad of affordable options plus more upmarket French and US chain hotels.

Outside of the capital very few hotels or accommodation options exist – in the desert these are non-existent.

Zakouma NP has 2 safari lodges: the expensive Tinga Camp and the uber-expensive Camp Nomade (by invitation only).

Stay safe

There continues to be potential for instability in Chad, particularly in its border regions and in the run-up to and during major political events. The Lake Chad region (threat of Boko Haram jihadists) and the other border areas are considered the most dangerous due to potential for armed conflict and minefields.

N'Djamena is relatively safe, although one should be wary of petty street crime and corrupt police/officials who will strictly enforce the 'no photography'-rule.

Most border crossings are extremely difficult (Sudan and Libya not being viable options) although the border crossings with Niger and Cameroon are relatively painless.

Floodings are another risk factor: during the rainy season (roughly June - September) heavy rain on the dry ground repeatedly leads to flooding and landslides and as a result to damage to infrastructure such as roads and bridges, and even loss of lifes.

Stay healthy

Drink water brands you recognize from stores. Eat at restaurants recommended to you by friends and locals you trust. Eat food that has been freshly prepared and cooked well. If you are eating local dishes, make sure the food was freshly prepared, cooked well, and still warm from the grill or cooking pot. Wash your hands often.

Ensure your vaccinations are up to date before visiting Chad. Proof of Yellow fever and Covid vaccinations are mandatory to enter the country.

The country is in the African Meningitis Belt. Malaria is the country's deadliest disease. The capital N'Djamena and the South in general lie in the high risk zone for mosquitos. The drier northern region (including Ennedi) sees fewer of them, though they may occur in oases such as Ounianga.


There are 200 distinct ethnic groups. In the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad.

The Chadian-Libyan conflict is something to be avoided at all times; Chadians known to be living in Libya have been tortured and murdered on previous occasions.

As in other Sahel countries, natives are reluctant to be photographed, so always ask. Also there is a general ban on photography for anything that might be of any military or governmental importance.


The rate of internet use is low – 10% of the population as of 2020.

Social media sites including Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp have been intermittently blocked since March 2018 and then are only accessible via VPN. The 3G coverage across the populated areas is good, but receiving data outside of N'Djamena is only possible with a Chadian sim and just now and then in the bigger towns (and outside of peak hours).

AVOID ALL TRAVEL; see also regional advisories.

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.

Despite a strong military presence in Chad, there is a possibility of clashes between rebels and government troops. Tensions are especially high in the eastern provinces, where armed rebel groups are attempting to control the area. If you are contemplating travel to Chad despite the warning, you should check with local authorities or with the Embassy of Canada in Khartoum (Sudan) for the latest security and safety information before finalizing any travel plans.

Civil unrest and violent incidents can occur throughout the country. Carry all necessary travel documents, including valid passports and visas, at all times. Monitor local news, avoid large crowds and demonstrations where political violence may occur and follow the advice of local authorities.

Increased threat of attacks and kidnappings

In 2013, the French military assisted the Malian government in efforts to repel armed rebels. Terrorist groups in the region declared their intention to increase attacks and kidnappings targeting Westerners. While the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali has been supporting the transitional authorities in stabilizing the region since July 2013, citizens of countries supporting the intervention are still at particular risk, but all travellers should exercise increased vigilance in the region.

Northern Chad (see Advisory)

Travel in northern Chad, especially in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti region, is considered dangerous. The presence of landmines has been reported along the border with Libya. Attempting to cross the border would be hazardous. Border closure can occur without notice.

Western Chad (see Advisory)

Contraband from Cameroon is frequently smuggled across the Chari River, which can result in armed intervention by Chadian customs and river police. Rural areas around Lake Chad are also subject to periodic violence.

A state of emergency is in effect in the Nigerian state of Borno, which borders Chad. Instability in this province could spill over into Chad.

Border with Sudan and the Central African Republic (see Advisory)

In the border areas with Sudan and the Central African Republic, rebel groups are active and create an extremely insecure situation. Attacks have occurred in these areas and there is a serious threat of kidnapping against foreigners. The humanitarian situation in eastern Chad (including the regions of Biltine and Ouaddaï) is serious, given the ongoing potential for trans-border clashes and the presence of hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees who have fled the conflict in Darfur. Targeted attacks on humanitarian workers by bandits and armed militias have increased, and several local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have suspended or reduced operations. You should exercise extreme caution in and around the city of Abéché, where violent incidents have been reported. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR ) recommends travelling in convoys of at least two vehicles and avoiding all movements in the region after 6:00 p.m. There are live minefields in this region. Crossing the border anywhere in this area is extremely dangerous.

N’Djamena (see Advisory)

Avoid all non-essential travel to the capital city of N’Djamena. There is a risk of violence, kidnapping and serious crime in N’Djamena. Travellers entering or exiting the capital must go through security check points. If travel outside N'Djamena is necessary, a permit issued by the Ministry of Interior is required. The permit may take several days to be issued. Outside N’Djamena, telecommunication systems are very unreliable. Travellers with Thuraya satellite phones should register the phones with the Chadian authorities. You are advised to hire a local driver to avoid being the victim of mob justice in response to a road accident.


Pickpockets and purse snatchers are active in market and commercial areas. Do not show signs of affluence and leave valuables and personal belongings, including cash and airline tickets, in a hotel safe or other secure place. Dress conservatively and avoid walking alone, especially after dark. Burglary and vehicle theft increase during periods of political instability. Banditry is common. Foreigners are increasingly targeted, particularly at night.

Road travel

Road conditions are dangerous. Roads are poorly maintained and mostly unpaved, even in N’Djamena. Streets are poorly lit and road signs are often missing. Excessive speeds, erratic driving habits, lack of vehicle maintenance, roaming wildlife and livestock, cyclists, and pedestrians pose risks. You are advised not to travel between cities at night due to poor road infrastructure.

Emergency services do not exist.

Fuel is not always available in major cities and is very scarce in rural areas.

You should travel in convoy outside N'Djamena, during daylight hours only and carry additional fuel, a spare tire and provisions.

Keep windows closed and doors locked at all times. You should stop and cooperate at all police or military roadblocks. Proper identification should be readily available.

Public transportation

There is no operational train or bus network in Chad. Trucks and minibuses are not properly maintained and are often dangerous. They are not recommended for any intercity travel.

Consult our Transportation FAQ in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.


Related Travel Health Notices
Consult a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic preferably six weeks before you travel.

Routine Vaccines

Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.

Vaccines to Consider

You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.


Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.


Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.


This country is in the African Meningitis Belt, an area where there are many cases of meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease (meningitis) is a serious and sometimes fatal infection of the tissue around the brain and the spinal cord. Travellers who may be at high risk should consider getting vaccinated. High-risk travellers include those living or working with the local population (e.g., health care workers), those travelling to crowded areas or taking part in large gatherings, or those travelling for a longer period of time.


There is a risk of polio in this country. Be sure that your vaccination against polio is up-to-date.


Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).


Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives, or with weakened immune systems. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should consider getting vaccinated.

Yellow Fever Vaccination

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
  • There is a risk of yellow fever in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
  • Proof of vaccination is required if you are coming from a country where yellow fever occurs.
  • Vaccination may be recommended depending on your itinerary.
  • Discuss travel plans, activities, and destinations with a health care provider.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites.

Food and Water-borne Diseases

Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.

In some areas in Central Africa, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in Central Africa. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!


There have been cases of cholera reported in this country in the last year. Cholera is a bacterial disease that typically causes diarrhea. In severe cases it can lead to dehydration and even death.

Most travellers are generally at low risk. Humanitarian workers and those visiting areas with limited access to safe food and water are at higher risk. Practise safe food and water precautions. Travellers at high risk should get vaccinated.


Schistosomiasis is caused by blood flukes (tiny worms) spread to humans through contaminated water. The eggs of the worms can cause stomach illnesses like diarrhea and cramps or urinary problems. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Avoid swimming in contaminated water. There is no vaccine available for schistosomiasis.

Travellers' diarrhea
  • Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
  • Risk of developing travellers’ diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
  • The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.


Insects and Illness

In some areas in Central Africa, certain insects carry and spread diseases like African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis, Rift Valley feverWest Nile virus and yellow fever.

Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.

African trypanosomiasis

African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is caused by a parasite spread through the bite of a tsetse fly. Tsetse fly bites are painful and if the disease is left untreated it is eventually fatal. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from bites especially in game parks and rural areas during the day. Avoid wearing bright or dark-coloured clothing as these colours attract tsetse flies. There is no vaccine available for this disease.


Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is an eye and skin disease caused by a parasite spread through the bite of an infected female blackfly.  Onchocerciasis often leads to blindness if left untreated. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from blackfly bites, which are most common during the daytime and close to running water. There is no vaccine available for onchocerciasis although drug treatments exist.



  • There is a risk of malaria throughout the year in the whole country.
  • Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There is no vaccine against malaria.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in well-screened air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet or pre-treating travel gear with insecticides.
  • See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss the benefits of taking antimalarial medication and to determine which one to take.


Animals and Illness

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Certain infections found in Central Africa, like rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.


Person-to-Person Infections

Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are spread through blood and bodily fluids; practise safer sex.


HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). 

Practise safe sex while travelling, and don’t share needles, razors, or other objects which could transmit infection.

Remember that HIV can also be spread through the use of unsterile medical equipment during medical and dental procedures, tattooing, body piercing or acupuncture. Diseases can also be spread though blood transfusions and organ transplantation if the blood or organs are not screened for HIV or other blood-borne pathogens.


Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.

For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.

Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care provider.

High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.

Medical services and facilities

Medical services and facilities

Delays in receiving medical care outside N’Djamena should be expected, as medical facilities are extremely limited throughout most of the country.

Three well-stocked clinics serving expatriates are available to travellers on an emergency basis in N’Djamena. They are expensive, and bills must be paid in cash and submitted to health insurance companies for reimbursement by the patient. French and Swiss doctors are available at the SOS International Clinic, the Clinique Medico Chirugicale and Europ Assistance.


Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and Detention page for more information.

Laws/illegal activities

Criminal convictions for possession or trafficking of drugs can result in strict penalties and often lengthy prison sentences. Persons violating Chad's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Convicted offenders may expect jail sentences and fines.

Homosexuality is not widely accepted and some homosexual activity is illegal.

You are required to have a government permit for all photography. It is prohibited to photograph airports, military establishments and government buildings. Film and cameras may be confiscated without notice.

An International Driving Permit is required.

Dual citizenship

Dual-nationality Chadian/Canadian citizens should be aware that they will be treated as Chadian if arrested, and access to a Canadian consular official may be extremely difficult. Consult our publication entitled Dual Citizenship: What You Need to Know for more information.

Local sensitivities

The majority of the population is Muslim. Common sense and discretion should be exercised in dress and behaviour. Respect religious and social traditions to avoid offending local sensitivities.


The currency is the Central African Franc (CFA) which is also used in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. There are no import restrictions on local or foreign currencies, provided they are declared upon arrival. The export of local currency is prohibited and the export of foreign currency is limited to the amount declared upon arrival. Proof of entry of money must be processed through one of the local commercial banks.

There are currently no automated banking machines (ABMs) in Chad. Credit cards are accepted only at the two major hotels in N'Djamena and at Air France, the major airline. Due to the potential for fraud and other criminal activity, use credit cards with caution. Small amounts of local currency can be negotiated on major credit cards from several banks. Canadian currency and Canadian dollar traveller's cheques are not widely accepted worldwide. It is recommended that traveller’s cheques be issued in euros, although U.S. dollars are accepted. Please ensure that you bring your receipt for the purchase of the traveller’s cheques, as it is required when you cash them.


The rainy season in the south lasts from May to October .The rains in central Chad occur from June to September. Many roads become impassable during the rainy season. The north receives little rain. You should keep informed of regional weather forecasts and plan accordingly, as rain barriers are closed during rainstorms and for three hours afterwards.

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